Vicar of Hook, Yorks.*



[*From: ‘Things To Come,’ Vol. XXI. JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1915 on

(pages 8-10, 19-22, 29-31, 39-40, 51-53, 63-65, 74-76, 104-106, 112-114, 124-125, 136-137, in FEBRUARY - DECEMBER, 1915).]









[Page 8]





With regard to the title of these articles, a word or two may not be deemed amiss.



In the first place, the articles will deal with the Restoration, then Conversion, not Conversion and subsequent Restoration.  We call particular attention to this, because in time past - we do not think it has many adherents now - some students of the Word, taking certain passages which seem to imply that Conversion will precede Restoration, insisted that such would be the order of events.



We do not wish to anticipate, by referring to the many Scriptures which assure us of Restoration quite prior to, if not apart from, Conversion, as such will be considered in their proper place.



In the second place, we are dealing with the Restoration and Conversion, of Israel, all Israel, that is the whole Twelve Tribes, not only with the two, Judah and Benjamin - nor with the ten miscalled by some “the lost tribes” - but with Judah and Israel - the Twelve Tribes.



There is no need to take up time in referring in detail to the past history of the Ten Tribes, or House of Israel.  We all know that these tribes were carried away captive by Shalmaneser King of Assyria: “Then the King of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years.  In the ninth year of Hoshea, the King of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan and in the cities of the Medes” (2 Kings 17: 5, 6): AND THEY HAVE NEVER RETURNED.  When we say they have never returned, we mean, in any representative number.






Now the Ten Tribes were carried away in B.C. 611.  But we must remember that, from the same severance of the house of Israel from the house of Judah in the days of Rehoboam, not only “the priests and Levites that were in all Israel restored to him out of all their coasts” (2 Chron. 11: 13), but “after them out of ALL the tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek the LORD God of Israel, came to Jerusalem, to sacrifice unto the LORD God of their fathers” (verse 16).



This would lead to the fraternizing of the members of the Ten Tribes of Israel with Two Tribes of Judah; and so when the tribes of Judah and Benjamin were carried captive to Babylon in the years 489 and 477 B.C., settled among the Two Tribes of Judah would share their fate.  So likewise, on the return of the representatives of the Two Tribes after the Babylonian captivity, some members of the Ten Tribes returned with them, but certainly not a representative number.



And though we read in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah the terms “People of Israel” (Ezra 2: 2); “Israel” (Ezra 2: 59; 3: 11; Neh. 7: 61; 10: 10; 13: 3); “all Israel” (Ezra 2: 70; 10: 5; Neh. 7: 73): though 1 Chronicles 9: 2 speaks of “the Israelites” as “first inhabitants that dwelt in their possessions, in their cities,” that is, after the return from Babylon (see Note in loco in “Companion Bible,” and particularly notice the statement “called ‘Israel’ although only the return of Judah and Benjamin”): though we read in verse 3 that members of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh were among those who returned: and though it is true that about sixty-eight years after Zerubbabel’s arrival in Judea, a small body of Israelites reached Jerusalem under Ezra: STILL we maintain that the Ten Tribes of Israel as distinct from Judah, have never returned to their land in any national or representative number.



Perhaps a reference to secular history in support of our contention may not be thought out of place, though we are reluctant to call in the “secular arm” when dealing with the truths of God’s Word.  Josephus, speaking of the supplementary return under Ezra, referred to above, says: “So Ezra read the epistle at Babylon to those Jews that were there; but he kept the epistle itself and sent a copy of it to those of his own nation that were in Media; and when these Jews had [Page 9] understood what piety the King [Xerxes] had towards God, and what kindness he had for Esdras, they were all greatly pleased, nay, many of them took their effects with them and came to Babylon, as very desirous of going to Jerusalem; but then the entire body of that people remained in that country (Media); wherefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, and not to be reckoned by numbers” (Antiq. B. 11, c 5, sec. 2).



The fact that a representative number of the House of Israel did not return from Babylon with the representatives of the House of Judah has been insisted on at some length, because there have been, and doubtless are even now, those who would maintain that those Scriptures which prophesy of the Restoration and Conversion of the whole Twelve Tribes, found their fulfilment at the return from Babylon.  But such, we trust to prove, is not the case; and that we look for the return of all the tribes of Israel to their own land in the future, and their subsequent conversion to Messiah “according to the Scriptures






Now there are three questions which naturally suggest themselves, when we treat of God’s future dealings with His chosen people Israel.  They are:



(1) Did God promise to the fathers of the Israelites a land,

and also this land to their descendants?



(2) If so, was this land to be held only for a time, or in perpetuity?



(3) What are the reasons for looking for a future restoration?



As regards the first (1) we would merely direct attention to the promise solemnly made by the Almighty to the three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.  To Abraham (or Abram as he was then called) was the promise [of an inheritance not, as yet, received (Acts 7: 5)] first made when he was in Canaan:



“Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward, for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed forever. … Arise, walk through the land in the length of it, and in the breadth of it; for I will give it unto thee” (Gen. 13: 15, 15, 17).



And this promise [of what Jehovah has promised to fulfil in the future millennium, (2 Pet. 3: 8; Rev. 20: 4)] was solemnly repeated as regards the patriarch himself: “I am JEHOVAH that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to GIVE thee this land to inherit it” (ch. 15: 7).  And also as regards his seed by covenant: “In the same day the Lord made a COVENANT with Abram, saying, ‘Unto thy seed [and Seed*] have I given this land…” (verse 18).


[* Messiah Jesus is also described as Abraham’ “Seed”; and the Promised Land is part of His inheritance, which is also awaiting His return, and the literal fulfilment of God’s promise and prophecy, after His Second Advent.  Psa. 2: 8.  cf. Psa. 78. & Psa. 110: 1-3, etc.]


And yet a third time Jehovah assures Abram that He will give the land, not only to him but to his seed after him: “And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan for an everlasting [i.e., for as long as this earth lasts] possession: and I will be their God” (Gen. 17: 8).



This threefold promise to Abraham is confirmed to Isaac: “Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee; for unto thee and to thy seed, I will give all these countries, and I will perform the oath (see ch. 15) which I swore into Abraham thy father” (Gen. 26: 3).



And also to Jacob: “I am the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac, the land whereon thou liest, to THEE will I give it and to THY SEED” (Gen. 28: 13).



So we see the promise of the land was made to the three patriarchs, and not only that they should possess it (this promise implies [transference from “Hades” (Luke 16: 23, cf. Psa. 16: 10. and Acts 2: 27) at the time if their ] RESURRECTION for they have never yet held [or inherited] the land, but to their descendants also.  And that not only for a time, but - as suggested by question (2) - for “an everlasting possession” (ch. 17: 8), and “for ever” (ch. 13: 15).*  See also Gen. 48: 4; Ex. 32: 13; Josh. 14: 9; Isaiah 60: 21; Jer. 7: 7; 25: 5 in this connection.


[* See NOTE 1 on “everlasting” and “for ever” at the end of this paper.]



If it be urged, as it might be by some, that the dispersion of the Israelites is a sign that the Almighty has abrogated His promise of everlasting possession, we would reply that not only has He not done so, but that the dispersion is in itself one of our most potent reasons for believing that their shall be a future restoration of His people; seeing that the “gifts and calling of God are without repentance”; seeing that the former tenure of the land was conditional on OBEDIENCE* (Deut. 28: 1, 15, 64, etc., among many other passages of Scripture) **; and seeing that that conditional tenure of the land had absolutely nothing to do with the promises of occupancy and possession of the land made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. …


[* Compare with 2 Thess. 1: 6-10: “If indeed it is just with God to repay affliction to THOSE who afflict you, 7 so that to you the AFFLICTED, a REST together with us, at the REVELATION of Jesus Christ from heaven with the angels of His power, 8 in the Flame of Fire, dispensing Retributive justice to those not acknowledging God, and TO THOSE NOT BEING OBEDIENT to the glad tidings of the Lord Jesus; 9 who shall pay a just penalty - aionian (i.e., in this context, the Greek word ‘aionian’ should be translated ‘age-lasting’) Destruction from the face of the Lord, and from the GLORY of His strength; 10 when He shall come to be glorified in His saints, and to be admired in all those who believe IN THAT DAY…”. 


Is there not here two distinct groups referred to?  (1) those who do “not acknowledging God”; and “those not being OBEDIENT to the glad tidings of the Lord Jesus  The former group, being a reference to all the unregenerate; and the latter group, a reference to some “disobedient” regenerate believers who neglect God’s conditional promises, for entrance into “the Land” - “among many other passages of Scripture?”. 


** For conditional texts see (1) Rom. 8: 17b, - We are co-heirs with the Christ IF INDEED we suffer with Him!  2 Tim. 2: 12. (2) IF we endure under suffering we shall reign with Him. cf. Matt. 10: 33.  (3) IF those who turned away from the Voice at Sinai, escaped not, how much less we, if we turn away from the voice of His Son, Heb. 12: 25.  (4) IF not obedient, no entrance into the kingdom (Heb. 3: 18; 4: 5, 6; Matt. 7: 21. (5) IF we do not change and become like little children, no entrance, Matt. 18: 3. (6) IF NOT striving according to the rules, not crowned at last. 2 Tim. 2: 5.  (7) IF we are faithless He abides faithful to His promises AND HIS THREATS. Col. 3: 25. (8) We will press on to maturity, IF GOD PERMIT. Heb. 6: 3; 2 Tim. 2: 25-26.  See more in G. H. Lang’s list.]



(3): What specific reasons have we for looking to a future restoration for Israel?



(1) The unconditional promises of God, already dwelt upon, and the fulfilment of many prophecies of Scripture.  It is an axiom of prophetical interpretation that any foretold event or events not having already received fulfilment, must point to fulfilment in the future.  And this axiom we shall apply when we consider the numerous prophecies dealing with  Restoration.



(2) The occupancy of the land.  Israel has never yet possessed, in its entirety, the land promised to Abraham in Gen. 15: 18, namely, “from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates



“The river Egypt  We find this appellation seven times in the Old Testament - in Gen. 15: 18; Num. 34: 5; Josh. 15: 4, 47; 1 Kings 8: 65; 2 Kings 24: 7; and Isaiah 27: 12, “the stream of Egypt;” and in all these places the original word is nachal, a word which means a torrent or stream, a winter stream, if you like, flowing with same rapidity, but flowing only at seasons, in the rainy season, and dry at other times.  Such, doubtless, was the stream at the extreme south of Palestine, dividing Egypt from Palestine, and entering the Mediterranean, or Great Sea at Rhinocorura.  In fact, the Septuagint version renders “the stream of Egypt” in Isaiah 27: 12, [Page 10] by Rhinocorura, a city of Palestine.  Syria, built on the borders of the desert which separates that country from Egypt, it has been supposed to denote a stream or torrent near that city.  (See Doyly & Mant, and published maps).



But this is not the river of Egypt of Gen. 15: 18; the word is not nachal, a torrent, but nahar, a river, and undoubtedly refers to the Nile, which manifestly was and is the River of Egypt.  See also note in Companion Bible on Numbers 34: 5.



So taking the “River of Egypt,” the Nile, as our South Western boundary and the River Euphrates as the South Eastern boundary, instead of a small stretch of land the size of Wales, or two or three English counties, we have a vast territory of some 300,000 square miles, a land fully answering the description of “a good land and large  Such is the future possession of God’s people Israel, solemnly secured to them [and which will be enjoyed by them during the “age” to come, (See Luke 20: 35; Acts 7: 5. cf. Num. 14: 23)] by the oath of the Most High.



(3) A third reason for looking forward to a future ingathering of Israel is the description given us as to the location of the tribes in Ezekiel’s forty-eighth chapter.  Of course, we know that this chapter, as the seven previous chapters, are a description of millennial times; but they furnish a strong reason for expecting a future Restoration, for there must of necessity be a representative number of each tribe mentioned, in order to take up and occupy the portion of land assigned to them.  The order of occupancy is quite different to that of the past, given for instance in Joshua (chs. 13-21), and as there has never, up to the present time, been such an allotment as the one described in Ezekiel 48, we confidently look forward to such taking place in the future [“age” - the promised MILLENNIUM].



(4) The union of the House of Judah with the House of Israel is another tangible proof for future Restoration.  Since the days of Rehoboam the son of Solomon, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat conspired, and threw off allegiance to the royal House of Judah, never have the two houses been united.  That some pious members of the House of Israel, valuing the pure worship of Jehovah before earthly advantages, threw in their lot with the children of Judah and Benjamin, we have already seen.  But this did not entail union of the two separate kingdoms, and we are assured, as we shall see in the course if this union must take place in the future.



(5) And lastly, before bringing this introductory article to a close, may not the “breadth and length and depth and height” of the love of Jehovah for His people [Israel] cause us to expect some grand and gracious things for them in the future?  Well may the prophet, speaking of them exclusively exclaim: “For he that toucheth you, toucheth the apple of His eye” (Zech. 2: 8).  Well may the Apostle ask “I say then, hath God cast away His people?” and reply to his own question, in effect, “Perish the thought!” (Rom. 11: 1).



But how sure and full of love are the words of Jehovah: “Behold I have graven thee upon the palms of My hands” (Isa. 49: 16).  And again “Thus saith Jehovah, Which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; Jehovah of Tsebahoth is His name: IF (im, emphatic, to dispel all doubt) those ordinances depart from before Me saith Jehovah - IF (im) My Covenant be not with day and night, and if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth; then will I cast away the seed of Jacob: FOR I WILL CAUSE THEIR CAPTIVITY TO RETURN, and have mercy on them” (Jer. 33: 25, 26.)



And yet again: “For this is as the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth; so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.  For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of My peace be removed, saith Jehovah that hath mercy on thee” (Isaiah 54: 10).



Surely a people that has had such gracious and exceeding [divine] precious promises made to them, however sad their past and present state may be, have a glorious future [upon this restored earth (Rom. 8: 18-22)] before them, and from being “lo ammi, not my people,” shall become “Israel My Glory,” and “Sons of the Living God


[Page 19]

So many are the “divers portions” in which “God in time past spake unto the fathers by the prophets” with regard to the future Restoration and Conversion of their descendants, that it is somewhat perplexing to know exactly where to begin our exploration of this rich treasure-house of God’s revelation.  Perhaps the best course will be to take the prophets in their chronological order, and see what each has to tell us in connection with the future dealings with the chosen seed.  So we begin with



*       *       *







“The words … which he saw concerning Israel” were given to him “in the days of Uzziah King of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash King of Israel, two years before the earthquake,” B.C. 689-687.  He is the earliest prophet, and the burden of his “words” is the unfaithfulness of the Ten Tribes of Israel.  His book closes, however, with some gracious promises of Jehovah, and we may take them as an introduction to the whole of our subject.



It may be as well here to draw the reader’s attention to the fact that predictions do not always stand in the order of their fulfilment, and it is well to remember this, when considering the various passages connected with our theme.  At first glance, for instance, it would seem, from Amos 9: 12, that spiritual privileges were to be restored to Israel before their return to their own land (verse 14); in other words, that Conversion is prior to, and introductory to Restoration.  But we shall see from other Scriptures that this is not so, and verse 12 supports our claim that Restoration must precede, for it is assuredly obvious that “the captivity of My people of Israel” must have been “brought again” ere they can “possess the remnant of Edom and of all the heathen that are called by My Name” (verse 12).



Now if we turn to the passage, Amos 9: 11-15, we have certain promises direct from God; and promises which have never yet received fulfilment; and therefore the fulfilment of which is to be still looked for.



(1) “And I will bring again the captivity of My people of Israel,


And they shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them;


And they shall plant vineyards and drink the wine thereof;


They shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them” (verse 14).



(2) And not only is this gracious promise of restoration made to them, but the LAND is promised to them in perpetuity, for.


[Page 20]

“And I will plant them upon their LAND,


And they shall no more be pulled up out of their land which I have given them,


saith the Lord thy God” (verse 15).



(3) And this, again, is followed by the promise of spiritual blessings and privileges:



“In that day will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen,

and close up the breaches thereof;


and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in  the days of old:


“That [to the end that, with this object in view,] they may possess the remnant of Edom,

and of all the heathen which are called by My name,


saith the Lord that doeth this” (verses 11, 12).



Taking, therefore, the whole passage, we have promised:



(1) Restoration (verse 14),



(2) Perpetual tenure of the land (verse 15,



(3) The renewal of spiritual privileges (verse 11),



(4) The possession of Edom and the nations (verse 12),



(5) Great temporal blessings (verse 13).



And all this IN THE FUTURE.



*       *       *



We now pass on to




“The word of the Lord … came unto Hosea, the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, King of Israel” (ch. 1: 1).  He began to prophecy in B.C. 689, and was contemporary with Amos, Isaiah and Micah.  He was a prophet to the Ten Tribes; and it is important that we bear this in mind, for if we find certain prophecies in his book concerning the return and conversion of those tribes, and know, as we certainly do, that such return and conversion have never yet taken place, we have a sure and certain foundation for looking for those important events in the future.  And such we have assuredly reason to anticipate.



At the outset, it is interesting to note how the two houses or kingdoms of Israel and Judah are regarded as distinct and separate.  “Though thou Israel play the harlot yet let not Judah offend” (4: 15); “Therefore shall Israel and Ephraim fall in their iniquity: Judah, what shall I do unto thee?  O Judah, what shall I do unto thee?” (6: 4).  See also 5: 14; 10: 11; 11: 12; 12: 2.  And let us note also that Ephraim is used synonymously for Israel (6: 10; 11: 8); and Samaria synonymously for Israel or Ephraim (7: 1; 10: 6, 7).



The Book itself deals at length with the backsliding and stiff-neckedness of the Ten Tribes.  “The prophet had warnings for Judah also, as well as promises of future blessings” (“C. B.” p. 1208).



It is the first three chapters to which we would particularly call attention.  Before, however, we consider these, there are two passages in the latter portion of the book, at which we ought to look.



“Come, and let us return unto the Lord: for He hath torn, and He will heal us: He hath smitten, and He will bind us up.  AFTER TWO DAYS He will revive us; in the third day He will raise us up; and we shall live in His sight” (6: 1, 2).



We know from such passages as Dan. 12: 1, 2, and Ezekiel 37, that RESURRECTION and Restoration are looked upon as closely connected; by some as identical.  The early fathers applied Ezekiel’s thirty-seventh chapter to a literal resurrection.  It is also customary with the prophets thus to join together a figurative and a literal resurrection (Dan. 12: 1, 2.



Assuredly in the latter of the verses quoted we have a wonderful prediction that the third day “He will raise us (i.e., Israel) up”; first, in the Restoration of Israel in the third of those thousand years (2 Pet. 3: 8), which have lapsed since their captivity, B. C. 611.  Also there may be a reference to the resurrection of our Lord on the third day, which is nowhere else in the Old Testament expressly predicted.  And the grand and glorious truth of the final victory over death [Sheol/Hades] and the grave is still further foretold in ch. 13: 14: “I will ransom them from the power of the grave (sheol): I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues, O grave (sheol) I will be thy destruction



It is certainly impossible in the face of this declaration to limit the passage to Restoration.  The belief of the Israelites generally in the resurrection; the use made of the latter part of the verse by the Apostle Paul (1 Cor. 15: 55): “O death, where is thy sting?  O grave (hades) where is thy victory?” preclude it.  It is assuredly a great declaration of victory over death and gravedom, turned into a shout of triumph by the inspired apostle, and finding accomplishment when “death shall be swallowed up in victory”; when “death and hell (hades – sheol, the power of the grave [and place “in the heart of the earth” (Matt. 12: 40), of disembodied souls of the dead]) shall be cast into “the lake of fire” (Rev. 20: 14).



Let us now look at certain passages in the first three chapters.  The terrible state of apostasy and departure from the living God is described by the “wife of whoredoms and children of whoredoms” (1: 2).  Together they depict a truly awful state if affairs, “for the land hath committed great whoredom, departing from the LORD” (1: 2).



Gomer, the adulterous wife,* whom the prophet is commanded to marry (1: 2) becomes the mother of Jazreel, a name having two meanings (1) May God sow (Zech. 9: 10).  For historical reference to Jezreel - the place - see 1, 4, 2 Kings 9: 22-37.


* Some students do not find in chapters 1 to 3 so many biographical particulars as this interpretation allows; while others suggest a figurative ** meaning for some of the critical passages. 


[** See NOTE 2 at the end.]


After Jezreel Gomer bears a daughter, ‘Lo-ruhamah’ (not compassionated), so called by the direct command of God, for “I will no more have mercy upon the house of Israel, but I will utterly take them away” (1: 6).  Then a son is born.  “Call his name Lo-ammi, for ye are not My people, and I will not be your God” (verse 9).



Taking the four names together, Gomer, Jezreel, Lo-ruhama and Lo-ammi, we come to this point, [Page 21] “The measure of sin and apostasy is full; I will scatter them (the Ten Tribes); I will not have compassion on them, and they shall not be My people  And this exactly describes the state of Israel at the present time, whatever the declaration of 3: 4, “For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and without teraphim” may mean.  It has been well said, “whatever may be the particular force of the several words here employed, the object of the prediction seems to be the utter desolution of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah both ecclesiastically and politically



But this state of things shall not always prevail, for “Afterward (no intimation of the length of time intervening) shall the children of Israel return, and seek the Lord their God, and David their king: and shall fear the Lord and His goodness in the latter days;” from which we learn that not only shall the children of Israel, as a whole, RETURN, but they “shall seek the LORD their God,” and this not only in penitence as described in Zechariah 12: 10-14, but with acceptable worship.  For all that is implied in the phrase, “seek the LORD their God,” see Deut. 4: 29; 1 Chron. 16: 10, 11; Ps. 105: 3, 4; 2 Chron. 12: 14; 14: 4; 15: 12, 13, and many other passages.



They shall also seek “David their king  Jeremiah tells us the same thing: “They shall serve the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I WILL RAISE UP [meaning by resurrection from the dead, now in Hades. See Acts 2: 27, 34.] unto them” (30: 9).  Ezekiel also tells us “I will set up one shepherd over them, My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd” 34: 23).  So in verse 24, “My servant David shall be king over them”; verse 25 … “And My servant David shall be their prince forever  From all which passages we gather that a certain one here named David [is to be resurrected from “Hades”, and he] shall rule over the restored and converted tribes.



Just as David, the son of Jesse, ruled in time past over the united Israel, so this [same] David in like manner shall reign over the whole twelve tribes when they once more become united.  Without questioning that David, Israel’s former king, true type of Messiah, shall again be raised up [by God’s RESURRECTION power], and may act as Messiah’s vicegerent, have we not in these passages an assurance that the true David, the “Beloved” of God, “My beloved Son,” shall in that day rule first and foremost over the united houses of Judah and Israel, according to the promise, Luke 1: 32.  “And the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of His father David, and He shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever (eis tous aionas) and of His kingdom there shall be no end”?



But we are further told that the children of Israel “shall fear the Lord and His goodness in the latter days,” a phrase which we may at once take as referring to the latter part of the Christian Dispensation.  The expression “latter days” occurs fourteen times in the Old Testament, Gen. 49: 1. (“last days”); Num. 24: 14; Deut. 4: 30; 31: 29; Isa. 2: 2; (“last”); Jer. 23: 20; 30: 24; 8: 47; 49: 39; Ezek. 38: 16; Dan. 2: 28; 10: 14; Hos. 3: 5; Micah 4: 1last”).  “A study of them will show that the prophecy (Gen. 49: 1), and the “blessing” (Gen. 49: 28), extends to, and embraces the days of Messiah, and His first and second advents” (“C. B.” notes on Gen. 49: 1).  The Septuagint rendering of this phrase connects it with (and shows it is synonymous with) the similar expressions in the New Testament, 1 Tim. 4: 1; 2 Tim. 3: 1; 1 Pet. 1: 20; 2 Pet. 3: 3; Jude 18; Heb. 1: 2 and 1 John 2: 28.  As all these refer to what is commonly designated the Christian Dispensation, and as regards the fulfilment of certain [millennial] events connected with Israel to the latter part of that dispensation, we look for it as still future.  So all that is told us in Hosea 3: 5 has not yet taken place, and if we wish to know what events lead up to that grand consummation of acceptance with God of the Ten Tribes we must look carefully at Hosea 2.  The first thirteen verses speak of God’s indignation with, and punishment of the Ten Tribes, for their [apostasy and] unfaithfulness.  But at verse 14 the prospect brightens.  “Therefore” (rather ought this to be “nevertheless” or “notwithstanding”) “behold I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably unto her  What wilderness?  Ezekiel answers the query: “I will bring you into the wilderness of the people and there I will plead with you face to face” (Ezek. 20: 35).  Does this not infer that it is while she is in a state of dispersion as a nation that God will “‘speak comfortably unto’ and ‘plead face to face’ with Israel”; that in the land of lands of dispersion she shall find place for repentance and “the valley of Achor for a door of hope,” that then the “prisoners of hope,” shall turn to the stronghold (Zech. 9: 12).  (For reference to the valley of Achor as a locality see Josh. 7).



In verses 19 and 20 Hosea’s manner of predicting the restoration and conversion of Israel is very remarkable.  It is under the figure of betrothal: “I will betroth thee unto Me for ever, yea I will betroth thee unto Me in faithfulness; and thou shalt know the LORD  Now among the Hebrews a damsel betrothed and waiting for her husband was accounted as already a wife, and so Hosea depicts the Ten Tribes as set apart, abiding many days for Jehovah preparatory to being received into closer spiritual relationship.  But after betrothal, marriage.  “And it shall be at that day saith the Lord that thou shalt call me Ishi (my husband), and thou shalt call me no more Baali (my lord).”



Temporal blessings are connected with restoration and reconciliation, as we saw they were in Amos 7: 13.  Emphasizing the meaning of Jezreel as “whom God soweth,” Jehovah goes on to say: “I will sow her unto Me in the earth; and I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy, and I will say to them which were not My people, ‘Thou art My people and they shall say, ‘thou art my God.’”  (See quotation as part of this verse by Paul in Rom. 9: 26, and by Peter in 1 Pet. 2: 10).  Thus Lo-ruhamah (not pitied) becomes [Page 22] Ruhamah (pitied), and Lo-ammi (not My people) becomes Ammi (My people).  A great and glorious consummation.  “The marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready” (Rev. 19: 7).



Note on ch. 1: 1. “I will no more have mercy upon the house of Israel, but will utterly take them away.  But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them by the Lord their God  A prediction having reference to Israel’s first banishment which was final, while Judah was not, but he was to return from it, and undergo a second.  The word od here translated “no more” is of limitable meaning; as if to say, “I will not continue to have mercy


[Page 29]

Finally, let us glance at Hosea 1: 10, 11.  Here, after stating that Israel is not His people, God promises a future great increase of the nation, “Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea,” in which we see a direct reference to the natural seed, for it will be remembered that the Almighty promised Abraham a double line of descendants, a natural seed as represented as the sand of the sea, and a spiritual seed represented by the stars of heaven (Gen. 22: 17).  Here we have to do with the natural seed.  But not only is multiplicity of posterity assured, it is still further assured that the place of their rejection shall at some future time be the scene of their acceptance.  “In the place,” pointing not to substitution but to locality; not “instead of” but “in the very place - THERE - where you were rejected, you shall be received into favour  Out of some two dozen [24] references given by Cruden under the heading “in the place” only one, namely, Gen. 50: 19, “Joseph said, fear not, I am in the place of God,” can this phrase be taken to mean “instead of  All the others refer to locality, and as regards this special reference, supports the view that as it was when Israel was still in the land they were rejected as the people of God, so in the future it will be in the same land that they will be fully received into favour.



Verse 13 goes still further.  It tells us that “the children of Judah and the children of Israel shall be gathered together” in public assembly, that the reason of this public concourse shall be to “appoint themselves a head  Who is this?  Certainly it cannot refer to Zerubbabel, for he only led the representative children of Judah to their own land after the Babylonian captivity; for he was only a type by anticipation of the greater Leader, Messiah-Jesus, who in the future both Judah and Israel, as a united people, shall acclaim and proclaim as one and only Head - cp. Ezekiel 37: 22; Zech. 14: 9.  In order to do this, “they shall come up out of the land” not necessarily the land of their dispersion, but rather the land of their restoration.



Thus we have a picture of representatives of the tribes, all the tribes, going up out of the land gathered together in one place, Jerusalem.  For it is of Jerusalem in another place we read: “Whither [i.e., to where] the tribes go up, the tribes of the Lord, unto the testimony of Israel, to give thanks unto the name of the LordPs. 122: 4.  Assuredly “great shall be the day of Jezreel  As Bishop Horsley remarks: “Great and happy shall be that day when the holy seed of both branches of the natural Israel shall be publicly acknowledged of their [Page 30] God, united under one Head, after King Messiah, and restored to the possession of the promised land, and to a situation of high pre-eminence among the kingdoms of the earth” (Horsley: “Hosea,” p. 4).



*       *       *






We should naturally expect that the “Evangelical Prophet.” as he has been so happily styled, would be rich in predictions [and prophetical truths] of Restoration and Conversion.  And such we find to be the case; and not only so, for we have many [unfulfilled and future Divine] prophecies and descriptions of the time when Jehovah Himself “judges among the nations,” and when the glorious King “shall reign in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His ancients gloriously,” over a RENEWED EARTH DURING THE MILLENNIUM of righteous rule, when there shall be universal peace among men and among beasts, when “the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea  It is a grand and splendid Book, this of Isaiah.  Well may Jerome have exclaimed: “His book is not a prophecy but a gospel,” so full is it of Messianic hopes.  And it is in connection with these that we find in this book so many Divine titles.  By no means the least interesting is that of




This title is given to Messiah in two prophecies of Isaiah, two of Jeremiah, and two of Zechariah, all connected with the “hope of Israel” in restoration.  It is only with the two in Isaiah that we are immediately concerned, as the other four will, please God, be considered in their proper place.  But quite independently of their special context, we see that four out of the six give us some aspect of Messiah’s relationship to Jehovah as depicted in the Four Gospels.  Thus:


Jer. 23: 5 speaks of Messiah as “a righteous Branch” and “a King that shall reign and prosper”; in this connecting Him with the Gospel of Matthew which is

pre-eminently that of “the King of the Jews



Zech. 3: 8 says: “I will bring forth my Servant the Branch”; and Mark

places the Lord Jesus before us as the ideal Servant.



Zech. 6: 12 presents Jehovah’s Man.  “Behold the Man whose name is the Branch”;

and Luke puts Him before us as the ideal Man.



Isaiah 4: 2 declares: “In that DAY shall Jehovah’s Branch be beautiful and glorious”;

and it is John’s Gospel that depicts  our Blessed Lord as what He is,

absolutely and intrinsically Divine.



We find all this brought out at greater length and in much fuller detail in the Companion Bible, p. 1304.  Before passing on, we would call attention to the twelve tribes of the Old Testament, and in the passages here quoted in referring specially to Messiah.  It means a sprout from a root, not from a branch.  “Tsemach is also a name of the brightest star in the Zodiac sign Virgo  (C. B., note Jer. 23: 5).  This is most interesting, and in connection full of meaning, but see Dr. Bullinger’s “Witness of the Stars” (pp. 31-34) for fuller details.



Now, before we look at any Restoration Scriptures in Isaiah, it is well to note when “the vision” and “word” of the Lord came to him, and concerning whom they came.  His prophecy begins B.C. 649, and closes B.C. 588.  He was partly contemporary with Hosea, with Micah, and with Nahum.  As we have seen that Amos and Hosea spoke of the Ten Tribes of Israel, the northern kingdom, so Isaiah’s “vision” and “word” was concerning Judah and Jerusalem.  Here we have a [Divine-appointed and chosen] prophet speaking to the Tribe of Judah (and by reference to Benjamin also), and speaking before the seventy years’ captivity in Babylon of those tribes.  And these two facts in some minds have raised the question whether the prophecies of restoration and future blessing were not fulfilled at the return from Babylon.  Our answer is that never have the glorious things predicted by the prophet been fulfilled, that they certainly were not at the return from Babylon (really much contrary was the case) and that this, together with the fact that the northern kingdom of Israel is mentioned in conjunction with Judah, points, as we show in our Introduction, to a future fulfilment.



We now turn to two the prophecies concerning God’s future plan for His chosen people Israel.  They are both connected with the title of Branch.



“In that day shall the Branch of the Lord be beautiful and glorious

(margin: “beauty and glory”).



And the fruit of the earth excellent and comely

for them that are escaped of Israel” (4: 2).



From which passages we learn that the Branch, i.e., the Messiah, shall be a glorious and beautiful sight for Judah.  “Thine eyes shall behold the King in His beauty: they shall behold the Land that is very far off” (lit., far-stretching, not limited is space as now, but of greater extension).  By the statement ‘that DAY’ the Branch of the Lord shall be “beauty and glory,” surely we are to understand that at the conversion of the returned Jews, - [we have the beginning of new “day” - God’s introduction to, and His establishment of the promised “rest” (Heb. 4: 1, 9), and of our long-awaited Messiah’s MILLENNIUM, (2 Pet. 3: 8; Rev. 20: 4)] - Messiah will shine forth to them as one much desired: “Lo, this is our God; we have waited for Him, we will be glad and rejoice in His salvation” (Isa. 25: 9).  This will be “in that day,” namely “when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion” (verse 12), and when He shall be Beauty and Glory to them who are escaped of Israel.  Escaped from what?  Doubtless from the Great Tribulation.  This will be the time of “Jacob’s Trouble  This will be that fearful time of punishment and judgment of which the Master said: “For then shall be Great Tribulation such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matt. 24: 21).  But, we are assured, Jacob “shall be saved out of it”; his seed, the servants of God, shall be sealed in their foreheads, and after they shall have escaped shall doubtless join in that ascription of praise and glory: “Amen.  Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honour and power [Page 31] and might be unto our God for ever and ever, Amen



We turn now to Chapter 11.  Like the last prophecy considered, this has to do with Branch.  But here the original word is not Tesmach but Netser, meaning a shoot or scion.  It is a declaration that Messiah is the offspring of Jesse by direct lineage, that He may be regarded as David in relation to His chosen Seed, “And there shall come forth a ROD out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots  And then follows a beautiful description of the profound holiness of Messiah, and His justice and His judgment (verses 2-5), immediately followed by a picture of peace in the animal world, anticipatory to what is told us in verses 11-16; another instance of the foretelling of events not standing in the same order as their fulfilment.  Verse 10 speaks of the Root of Jesse: “In that day there shall be a Root of Jesse which shall stand as an ensign of the people (peoples): to IT shall the Gentiles seek, and His rest shall be glorious  We see in this chapter, not only a prophecy of the restoration of Israel, but also allusion to the nations of the world.  The nations are to be blessed with Israel and through Israel: “In thy seed shall all nations of the earth be blessed,” was God’s promise to Abraham, and so again and again in prophecy we find Israel and the nations connected in blessing, especially is this so in Isaiah: “And it shall come to pass in that day” (i.e., the day of the Root of Jesse), that the Lord shall set His hand the second time to recover the remnant of His people which shall be left from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from the islands of the sea” (verse 11).  In which verse we note the following particulars:



(1) The Lord shall set His hand the second time.  Then there must have been a “first time” recovery.  And this “second” must refer either to the return from Babylon or a subsequent return.  That it cannot refer to the “bringing again” of the Babylonish captivity is evident from the list of countries mentioned in this verse.  That return was from Babylon, and did not include Assyria, to which country the Two Tribes were never carried.  So this “second time,” taking the first recovery to refer to deliverance from Egypt, must be subsequent to  (and quite independent of) the return from Babylon.  It is still in the future.



(2) Then a word as to remnant.  It is generally taken for granted that by the word remnant is meant few out of many.  But if we take the Holy Scripture’s explanation of the term, we see that it means, not the few but the national representation of all the tribes gathered together into one nation from east and west and north and south to the glory of Messiah’s [millennial] kingdom.  Micah tells us what is meant by remnant when he prophesies of Israel’s restoration: “I will surely assemble, O Jacob, all of thee; I will surely gather the remnant of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah, as the flock in the midst of their fold; they shall make great noise by reason of the multitude of men” (2: 12).  So by “remnant” in this chapter of Isaiah we are to understand all included in the “outcasts of Israel” with the “dispersed of Judah



As to the countries whence these recovered ones return, Assyria accounts no doubt for representatives of the Ten Tribes.  Egypt contributes others; Pathros, a section of Egypt, returns others; Cush, either Arabia or Ethiopia adds some; nor are Elam (i.e., Persia) Shinar (Babylon) and Hamath without their contributions.  So much for the East.  But also from the “islands of the sea,” from among the posterity of Japheth, who peopled the “islands of the Gentiles,” from European countries, others find their way to the land which is theirs by promise.



Thus we see that from the east and west, north and south, “the four corners of the earth,” shall the “outcast” and “dispersed” return.  All bitterness and envy and animosity shall be laid aside.  A united loving peaceable people (verse 13) shall once more enter the land given them by God.  Human agency shall help them (verse 14), miraculous intervention shall assist them (verses 15, 16).  It shall even be “like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt



*       *       *






In our last article we saw very plainly how Jehovah would “assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth” (Isa. 11: 12).  Also verse 11 tells us that the LORD will “recover the remnant of His people … from Assyria and from Egypt



We follow the same line of thought in chapt. 27: 12, 13.  “It shall come to pass in that day the LORD shall beat off from the channel of the river unto the stream of Egypt, and ye shall be gathered one by one, O ye children of Israel.  And it shall come to pass in that day, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the Lord in the holy mount of Jerusalem  In which passage we note the blowing of the great trumpet.  Compare Matt. 24: 31, “And He shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet (lit.: “a trumpet, yea, a great sounding trumpet”); and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other”: “which place,” says Lowth, “some understand of this very restoration of the Jews the prophet here speaks of  This may be so, but Ezekiel (37: 9) certainly connects the four winds with the thought of RESURRECTION, or, we might say, restoration IN AND BY RESURRECTION.  “Then said he unto me, Prophecy unto the wind, prophecy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord God: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live  Certain it is that “the sound of the trumpet” is connected not only with ordinary restoration, but also with RESURRECTION [of the dead from Hades, (Acts 2: 27, 34. cf. Rev. 6: 9-11, R.V.].  For Paul in that wonderful 15th chapter of first Corinthians tells us, “the trumpet shall sound, and the dead - [but not all “the dead” at this time (Luke 20: 35; Rev. 20: 7, 13, R.V.).] shall be raised incorruptible  And again the same fact is put before us in 1 Thess. 4: 16.  “For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first  We must bear in mind that [there is no indication of any other soul being resurrected “from the dead” at that time “for David ascended not into the heavens…” (Acts 2: 34, R.V.)], both these passages were penned during the transitional period of the Pentecostal dispensation, when the promised return, parousia, of the Messiah, was the great hope of the election according to grace.  How different is the later revelation of the “out resurrection” and the “calling on high,” the blessed HOPE of the Church of the Mystery.



But before passing on, note how Assyria and Egypt are mentioned again and again in relation to Israel.  In seven passages is this so, namely, Isa. 7: 18; 11: 11, 16; 19: 23, 24, 25; 27: 13.  A reference to these passages will be found edifying, particularly ch. 19: 23-25, which is a distinct prophecy of the blessing - the future blessing of Assyria, Egypt and Israel.



We now look at another prophecy in this truly wonderful book of Isaiah.  And here we would say that space will not permit us to examine every passage, in this and other prophetical books, relating to the ingathering of God’s people.  Our purpose and object is, under the Divine blessing, to put before our readers the main and most prominent prophecies.  Especially do we feel this laid upon us at this time when nation is rising against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and “men’s hearts are failing them for fear, and for looking for those things which are coming on the earth” (Luke 21: 26).  The destiny of Palestine [now known as “Israel”] will be one of the absorbing topics of the near future.  Who shall have Palestine?  A simple question.  The answer will be written in blood - Jerusalem as representing the whole land shall yet again become “a burdensome stone for all people” (Zech. 12: 3).



But to proceed.  Chapters 29 to 33 of Isaiah are looked upon by commentators as a continuous whole.  “This and the four following chapters have an immediate aspect upon Sennacherib’s invasion” (Lowth).  It was only natural that the commentators should refer these chapters to this great event in Judah’s history, as not only did Isaiah prophecy regarding the visit of Sennacherib’s emissaries to King Hezekiah, but chapters 36 to 39 are practically identical with 2 Kings 18: 13 to 20: 18.  Also the two prominent places in Isaiah 30: 31, and 31: 8) the Assyrian is mentioned; therefore again, naturally, we say, the thoughts of man turn to Assyria and Sennacherib.  We shall, however, hope to show that this prophecy alludes to a yet future time, to a time when after a representative number of the Twelve Tribes has been brought back to their own land, trouble, and battle, and siege beset them, and they can be and are, only rescued by the strong arm of the Lord.



See Chapter 29: 1-8.  “Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city where David dwelt” (verse 1).  Who or what is Ariel?  The answer can be but one, Jerusalem.  This is “the city where David dwelt,” this is where he ruled, “for seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three years reigned he in Jerusalem” (1 Kings 2: 11).  But why here styled Ariel?  Ariel signifies either the Lion of God or the Altar-hearth of God.  Do we not see in the first meaning a reference to Jerusalem as the seat of government in the future of the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, and in the second, the Altar-hearth of God, not a reference to the sacrifices which have been offered in the past to Jehovah, and shall be in the future (See Ezekiel 43: 15 (marg. Where “Ariel” again occurs), but rather because here at Jerusalem terrible destruction shall befall those who invest the land and the city with opposing armies.  So in verse 2, “it shall be unto me as [Page 40] Arieli.e., it shall be unto me as a veritable Altar-hearth of destruction by God.



Verses 3 to 8 of this 29th chapter describe a state of siege against the city when it “shall be brought down, and shall speak out of the ground,” and shall be utterly abased and humiliated.  Yet at the crucial time when destruction threatens the city, Jehovah Himself intervenes; for “the multitude of thy strangers shall be like small dust, and the multitude of thy terrible ones (thy tyrants) shall be as chaff that passeth away, yea, it shall be at an instant suddenly” (verse 5).  “Thunder, earthquake, great noise, storm and tempest, flame of devouring fire,” these sweep away and destroy the enemy, suddenly, ruthlessly.  It is Messiah interposing on behalf of His people till “the multitude of all the nations that fight against Ariel, even all that fight against her and her munition [“strong hold” R.V.], and that distress her shall be a dream of the night vision” (verse 7).



This cannot refer to the overthrow of Sennacherib’s army in the time of Hezekiah, for (1) Sennacherib’s army never invested Jerusalem.  God’s Word is certain as to that: “Therefore, thus saith the Lord, concerning the king of Assarya, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shield, nor cast a bank against it” (2 Kings 19: 32).



(2) The destruction of Sennacherib’s army took place at Libnah, not Jerusalem, and was not with “great noise” or “storm and tempest,” but in the silence of the night watches (verse 35). 



We turn to the last few verses of Isaiah 30 for further details.  Here again from verse 27 we have a description of the overthrow of Jerusalem’s assailants.  It is the same scene as given us in the previous chapter.



“Behold, the name of the Lord cometh from far” - (the idea conveyed is the sudden appearance of the Lord, cp., verse 13, “suddenly, at an instant”) - “burning with His anger, and the burden thereof is heavy; His lips are full of indignation, and His tongue as a devouring fire.” … And the Lord shall cause His glorious voice (Heb. the glory of His voice) to be heard, and shall show the lighting down of His arm, with the indignation of anger, and the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, and tempest, and hailstones” (verses 27, 30).



The whole passage refers to the overthrow of Israel’s enemies, and that not quietly, silently, when men slept, as was the case on the visitation on Sennacherib’s army at Libnah, but “in the battles of shaking will He (Jehovah) fight against them” (verse 32).   How different it is with the Lord’s own people Israel.  “Ye shall have a song, as in the night when a holy assembly is kept (a reference to Passover night); and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the Lord, to the Mighty One (the Rock) of Israel” (verse 29).



But verses 31 and 33 give us more details.  Verse 31 speaks of “the Assyrian” which “smote with a rod  Who is this?   The usual traditional answer is “Sennacherib   If, however, we connect these two verses, we are forced to admit that they cannot refer to Sennacherib, for his end was very different from the fate of “the Assyrian” described in verse 33.   Sennacherib was slain by his two sons (2 Kings 19: 37), “the Assyrian” meets his end in Tophet.  “The Assyrian” is one of the twelve titles of Antichrist, who is the coming Prince, “the king of fierce countenance,” the wilful king.  He it is who is the future - it may be the near future - who will lead the besieging armies against Jerusalem.  His end will be very terrible, for, while fire from above devours those who follow him, he is “cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone” (Rev. 19: 20).



“For Tophet is ordained of old (Heb. from yesterday) yea, for the king it is prepared: he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood: the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it



Tophet is situated in the Valley of Hinnom on the east of Jerusalem.  Here it was that the idolatrous kings caused their sons and daughters to pass through the fire to Moloch.  It was defiled by Josiah (2 Kings 23: 10), and in our Lord’s time was used as a place of destruction for the city’s garbage and refuse.  Our blessed Lord spoke of it as a type of [eternal] punishment.  In the future the valley of Hinnom will be the scene of a great burial of the hosts who invest Jerusalem (Jer. 7: 32).  But the particular spot named Tophet is reserved for the destruction of the Antichrist; here he meets his doom.



Chapter 31: 4-9 gives us a greater description of the scene.  “Like as a lion, and the young lion roaring on his prey … so shall the Lord of hosts come down to fight for Mount Zion, and for the hill thereof



“As birds flying, so will the Lord of hosts defend Jerusalem; defending also He will deliver it; and passing over He will preserve it  “Passing over” (pasoch) the very word used of the “passing over” of Exod. 12: 13, 23, 27, is a distinct reference to the Pentateuch, and emphasizes the fact that, just as the Passover in Egypt was at an exact and particular place, so, whenever “the Assyrian” shall be smitten, it shall be at an exact and particular place.  Mount Zion at Jerusalem is the very scene of this second Passover.  Please God, we will enlarge upon this in future articles.



“The Assyrian” shall not fall by human hands.  The sword, nor of a mighty man, and the sword, not of a mean man, shall devour him.  “His rock (i.e., confidence, or strength of war) shall pass away for fear, his princes shall be afraid of the ensign (the open triumphant manifestation of Messiah), thus the Lord, whose fire is in Zion, and His furnace in Jerusalem” (31: 9 marg.).



Surveying then those three passages of prophecy: 29: 1-8; 30: 27-33; 31: 4-9, we have the following six results:-



1.  Certain hostile peoples will come against Judah, after the Restoration.


2.  Those nations will be frustrated in their purpose,

“sifted in the sieve of vanity” (30: 28).


3. Their overthrow will be by the immediate interposition of the Lord.


4. It will be unexpected and sudden.


5. It will be with fire, and battle, and “great noise


6. It will be at Jerusalem, and their ringleader will be hurled into Tophet.


[Page 51]


But what of Israel?  We have seen and shall further see that the deliverance from their oppressors by the interposition of Messiah ensures blessings, temporal and spiritual, and these blessings flow from their reception of Messiah as their Hope and Salvation.  So in the passages here considered.



1. There shall be peaceful occupation of Jerusalem.  “For the people shall dwell in Zion at Jerusalem: thou shall weep no more: He will be very gracious unto thee at the voice of thy cry; When He shall hear it, He will answer thee” (Isa. 30: 19).



2. Gladness of heart at the moment their enemies perish.  “Ye shall have a song … and gladness of heart” (30: 29).



3. Great spiritual blessings as shown in



(a) a right understanding.



“They also that erred in spirit shall come to understanding know understandingMarg.), and they that murmured shall learn doctrine” (29: 24).



(b) An uninterrupted possession of good and faithful teachers.



“Yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more, but thine eyes shall see thy teachers: and thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying, ‘This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left’” (30: 20, 21).



(c) A complete change of attitude towards God.



“Ye shall defile also the covering of the graven images of silver, and the ornament of thy molten images of gold: … thou shalt say unto it, ‘Get thee hence’” (30: 22).



“Turn ye unto Him from Whom the children of Israel have deeply revolted.  For in that DAY every man shall cast away his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which your own hands have made unto you for a sin” (31: 6, 7).



(d) The gift of the Spirit.



“Until the Spirit be poured out upon us from on high” (32: 15).


[Page 52]

4. Also temporal blessings.



“Then shall He give the rain of thy seed, that thou shalt sow the ground withal; and bread of the increase of the earth, and it shall be fat and plenteous: IN THAT DAY shall thy cattle feed in large pastures,” etc. (30: 23).



We can, though only dimly, picture the joy of the Israelites, when, saved by Messiah from all their enemies, and owning Him as their God and Saviour, they turn to Him with thankful and adoring hearts.  Surely such words as those spoken by the Holy Spirit, in Isaiah 12: 4-6, will express their heartfelt joy and gladness



“Praise the Lord, call upon His name;


Declare His doings among the people,


Make mention that His name is exalted.


Sing unto the Lord; for He hath done excellent things:


This is known in all the earth.


Cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion,


For great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee



*       *       *






Micah the Morasthite prophesied “in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah  He was contemporary with Isaiah, but spake not only “concerning Judah and Jerusalem,” namely, the Southern Kingdom, but also regarding Samaria as representing the Northern Kingdom; therefore he includes all the Twelve Tribes of Israel.



So in 2: 12 we have the promise of Jehovah:-



“I will surely assemble, O Jacob, all of thee;


I will surely gather the remnant of Israel;


I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah,


As a flock in the midst of their fold:


They shall make great noise by reason of (the multitude of) men



And again in 4: 6, 7:-



“In that day, saith the Lord, will I assemble her that halteth,


And I will gather her that is driven out, and her that I have afflicted;


And I will make her that halted a remnant,


And her that was cast far off a strong nation;


And the Lord shall reign over them in Mount Zion from henceforth, even for ever” (ad olam).



From which passages we learn that the assembling of Jacob and gathering of Israel shall not be confined to a small, inconsiderable number, but shall be “all of thee



And still further the promise of this is certain, steadfast, and sure, on the word of Jehovah, -


“I will surely assemble thee, O Jacob.


I will surely gather the remnant of Israel



And we would suggest that by the names Jacob and Israel the whole of the chosen people is included.  Jacob, the natural seed, sunk it may be in infidelity, ignorance and indifference; and Israel, again the natural seed, but faithful, believing, expectant, like the “just and devout” Simeon, “waiting for the consolation of Israel,” or like Anna “of great age” looking for redemption in Jerusalem.



Be this as it may, we know from the Word that it is God’s purpose to gather together and assemble His nation, His chosen people, in their own land, and that Messiah, the Christ, shall THERE rule over them during a wonderful AGE of blessing and peace.  But ere that glorious time comes, His people shall pass through a time of sore and grievous trouble, yea, it will be the time of “Jacob’s trouble



As in the past, so in the future.



“Now also many nations are gathered against thee, that say, Let her be defiled, and let our eye look upon Zion” (4: 11).



But this attitude of the nations arises from ignorance of God’s purposes in regard to Israel.  So arrogance is born of this want of [prophetical] knowledge.



“But they know not the thoughts of the Lord,


Neither understand they His counsel:


For He shall gather them (in judgment)


As the sheaves of the floor”


(4: 12; read also next verse).



We shall find this in greater detail in ch. 5.  The chapter begins, it will be seen, with that beautiful prophecy concerning the “coming forth” of Him that is “to be Ruler in Israel,” the chosen of God, the anointed of the Father, “whose going forths (have been) from of old, from everlasting” (me olam).



This, it will be remembered, as the prophecy pointed out to “Herod the king” by the chief priests and scribes, when he enquired of them “where Christ should be born” (Matt. 2: 3-6).



How appalling to us at this day seems their stupendous blindness, in that they could point to the sure word of prophecy with respect to the place where Messiah should be born King of the Jews, and yet actually and wilfully reject His claims to their loyalty.



Surely an object lesson, and warning to all of us in the present day, lest we also reject those truths which are revealed to us for faith-obedience.  Even the most deeply taught of God needs again and again to send up the heart-felt petition, “Open (unveil) Thou mine eyes, that I may behold (see clearly) wondrous things out of Thy Law” (Ps, 119: 18).



Now this fifth chapter not only predicts the “coming forth” in Incarnation, but speaks also of the future beneficent [millennial] reign of the Ruler in Israel.



“And He shall stand and feed (i.e., tend, or shepherd, as a flock) in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord His God; and they (Israel, His flock) shall abide; for now shall He be great unto the ends of the earth” (5: 4).



Another prophecy of the future glories of Messiah, and pointing again to the peaceful and righteous shepherding during millennial times.



Before this, however, comes that time of stress, anguish, and sorrow.  “The Assyrian” shall come into the land, and tread down the palaces.  When will this be?  Even the commentators cannot reconcile the mention of the Assyrian in verse 5 as referring to the carrying away by Assyria of the Ten Tribes, which was then imminent, or the boastful threatenings of Sennacherib against Judah.  And this for the simple reason that [Page 53] they cannot reconcile either event to what is told us in the immediate context, nay, in this very verse.  For we read:-



“And this Man shall be the peace, when the Assyrian shall come into the land, and when he shall tread in our palaces. … thus shall He deliver us from the Assyrian”… (verses 5, 6).



We look in vain at the history of the chosen people for any fulfilment of this prophecy.  It certainly did not take place at the taking into captivity of Israel, nor at the threatenings to Judah, nor at the “coming forth” of the Prince of Peace on Incarnation.  Therefore most unhesitatingly we look for it in the future.  The whole passage compels us to do so.  When we see, as we did when considering the somewhat similar passages in Isa. 30: 30-33, and 31: 8, 9, that by the title “The Assyrian,” cannot be understood Sennacherib, or any other king or leader of the Assyrian hosts, but that it is one of the names given to the Antichrist that shall arise in the future, all becomes plain, and fits in naturally with other passages of the [presently unfulfilled] prophetic word.



Who the “seven shepherds and eight principal men” that shall be raised up against the Antichrist may be, we know not.  The time will show, and we must leave it.  Certain it is, that Messiah-Jesus Himself will intervene and will vanquish all enemies.  “When the enemy shall come in like a flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him” (Isa. 59: 19).



And it is by the sudden appearance of Messiah, and the awful destruction of their enemies that Israel is turned to the LORD, and is received into the New Covenant.  We shall, please God, see this well insisted on in passages still to be examined if the LORD will; and therefore we will not take up space by anticipating.  If it be urged that we do not find such conversion absolutely stated in this book of Micah, we assuredly do find passages which strongly hint it, and one which definitely states that such conversion shall take place.



Look at the words full of trust and joyful anticipation of the loving kindness of Jehovah:-



“Who is a God like unto Thee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of


His heritage?  He restaineth not His anger for ever, because He delighteth in mercy.


He will turn again, He will have compassion upon us; He will subdue our iniquities;


and Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea.


Thou wilt perform the truth of Jacob, and the mercy of Abraham,


Which Thou has sworn unto our fathers from the days of old” (7: 18-20).



What can these words mean but that in the future the chosen people will again be reconciled to God?  But assuredly the latter part of 4: 5 places this beyond doubt.  Whether we regard the first part of the verse, “For all people will walk every one in the name of his God,” as a supposition or a statement of fact, the latter part leaves no room for uncertainty.  Israel, in time past unfaithful to God, worshipping them who be no gods, makes firm resolve.



“And we will walk in the name of the LORD OUR GOD for ever and ever” (le olam ve ad).



This, we urge, is no hint at conversion, but a firm resolution, a statement of fidelity to God, subsequent to reconciliation to Jehovah, as the passages already quoted fully show.



*       *       *

[Page 63]





But not only does Micah tell us of the events and happenings connected with the restoration and conversion of Israel, and the righteous [millennial] rule of Messiah; he also takes us still further, and, if the interpretation of verses 7, 8, following those in chapter 5, which we considered in our last article, be correct, [it] gives us a glimpse of what that people shall become, and how they shall be regarded among the nations of the world, when the Lord shall have dealt graciously with them.



We commend the thought of our readers that verse 7 speaks of Israel as being a blessing to the families of the earth, and we suggest that, by becoming the glad messengers of God’s goodness and mercy to the nations “the remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people as a dew from the LORD, as the showers upon the grass, that tarrieth not for man, nor waiteth for the sons of men  Dew and showers!  Both emblems of the blessing of Jehovah.  Says dear old Cruden, “Dew is a small reign, which, falling on the ground in the morning, doth keep it moist, and make it fruitful.  In warm countries, and in places where it rains but seldom, the night dews supply in some sort the want of rain.  And, therefore, the bestowing of it is a blessing from God



It is a symbol of Divine goodness.  Thus Gen. 27: 28.



“Therefore may God give thee of the dew of heaven,


And of the fatness of the earth,


And plenty of corn and wine



Thus spake Isaac when blessing Jacob.



It was the dew which introduced, if we may so put it, the manna which God gave from heaven (Ex. 16: 13, 14; Num. 11: 9).



Moses, when pronouncing blessing on the tribe of Joseph, exclaimed,


“Blessed of the Lord be his hand, for the precious things of heaven, for the dew,


and for the deep that croucheth beneath” (Deut. 33: 13).



Brotherly love and concord are compared to dew in Ps. 133: 3.  And so the Lord promises to bless Israel, “I will be as the dew unto Israel” (Hos. 14: 5).



And “showers” are always associated with blessing; not devastating relentless torrents of deluging rain, but gentle, quiet, fructifying drops of water, moistening the earth, and causing it to bring forth and bud.



“Thou makest it (the earth) soft with showers,


Thou blessest the springing thereof” (Ps. 65: 10).



So in the song of Moses (Deut. 32: 2).



“My doctrine shall drop as the rain,


My speech shall distil as the dew,


As the small rain upon the tender herb,


And as showers upon the grass.”



So, of the King’s Son, the true [and ‘greater’] Solomon, the Prince of Peace, we read (Ps. 72: 6), -


“He shall come down as the rain upon the mown grass,


As showers that water the earth



And so in the future restoration of Israel,


“And I will make them and the places round about my hill a blessing;


And I will cause the shower to come down in his season:


There shall be showers of blessing” (Ezek. 34: 26).



We conclude, therefore, that this seventh verse describes the holy people as they will then be, a blessing to the whole earth, in that it declares that “the remnant of Jacob shall be as the dew from the Lord, as the showers upon the grass, that tarrieth not for man, nor waiteth for the sons of men



If verse 7 describes the peaceful mission of Israel among the nations, the eighth verse in no less manner pictures them as a power among the peoples of the world.  It is the fulfilment of a [Divine] prophecy of many centuries ago.



“And all the people of the earth shall see that thou art called by the name of the LORD, for they shall be afraid of thee” (Deut. 28: 10); “For the LORD thy God blesseth thee as He hath promised thee …



And thou shalt reign over many nations, but they shall not reign over thee” (Deut. 15: 6).



See also Isa. 49: 23, and this eighth verse of Micah 5.


“And the remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles in the midst of many people,


As a lion among the beasts of the forest,


As a young lion among the flocks of the sheep;


Who, if he go through, both treadeth down,


And teareth in pieces, and none can deliver



But the climax is reached in that wonderful description of the MILLENNIAL condition of spiritual supremacy in chapter 4: 1-3, and Isa. 2: 1-4, both prophecies independent and supplementary.  Both testify to



1. The supreme exaltation of Messiah’s rule (verse 1).



2. The great desire of all nations for instruction in the way of the LORD (verse 2).



3. The righteous judgment of the LORD, resulting in universal peace among nations (verse 3).


4. Peace and security to Israel (verse 4).



5. A walk in the true knowledge of God implying emphatically thereby previous conversion (verse 5).



“And we shall walk in the name of the LORD our God for ever and ever” (le olam va ed).



*       *       *






We come now to the writings of Jeremiah of Anathoth, to whom the Word of the Lord came in some fifty-one prophetic portions.  Jeremiah’s prophecy is dated (1: 2, 3) as being “in the days of Josiah … in the thirteenth year of his reign.  It came also in the days of Jehoiakim [Page 64] the son of Josiah … unto the end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah … unto the carrying away of Jerusalem captive in the fifth month  The thirteenth year of Josiah was 518 B.C.  The eleventh year of Zedekiah was 477 B.C.  Therefore the whole period covered by Jeremiah was forty-one years.  (See Companion Bible, vol. IV., p. 1015).



He was the last prophet, therefore, preceding the carrying away into captivity to Babylon, by Nebuchadnezzer, of Judah and Jerusalem, 115 years after the Ten Tribes of Israel had been carried away into Assyria by Shalmaneser.  So Israel being quite out of the way, and only Judah and Benjamin remaining in their own land at the time of his prophecies, we should expect that Jeremiah would confine any predictions of a future restoration to those two tribes only.  And yet we find that such is by no means the case; for not only does the prophet mention the Ten Tribes of the house of Israel, but he is most careful to distinguish between Israel and Judah in connection with future restoration.  A fact which impresses upon our minds that such a combined restoration must be still future, seeing, as we endeavoured to show in our Introduction, that the Ten Tribes of Israel were not included in a truly representative number in the return of Judah from Babylon. 



We will now look at portions of two chapters, taking them together as they are connected by two references common to each.  The first is the glorious Person of BRANCH, “The LORD our Righteousness” (23: 5 and 33: 16), one of the most gracious of the ten Jehovah titles.  But let us look at the chapters themselves.



Take 23: 5-8, “Behold the days come, saith the Lord  An expression occurring six times in this book of Jeremiah and always with respect to a time that is still future even in our own, [present] day.  Reference to them will show that they speak of


1. The future rule of a king (23: 5).


2. Restoration from all countries (23: 7).


3. The bringing again “the captivity of my people ISRAEL and JUDAH” (30: 3).


4. The human and animal inhabiting of the land (31: 27).


5. The New Covenant “with the house of ISRAEL and with the house of JUDAH” (31: 31).


6. The building of the city from one definite point to another definite point (31: 38).



All this we maintain is still future, and not dependant on the uncertain fallible word [and false teachings] of man, but on the sure and certain promise of Jehovah.  In each case the words ate, “Thus saith the LORD



1. Well, the first thing asserted in 23: 5 is that the LORD will raise unto David a righteous ruler.  “I will raise unto David a righteous Branch (Tsemaach); and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth (eretz).”



What can this verse refer to other than the future rule of Messiah [“in” and over this restored earth, (Rom. 8: 20, 21), and] over the restored and forgiven people?  We saw plainly in dealing with the two prophecies of Isaiah concerning BRANCH, that the reference can only be to our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, to Whom the Lord God shall give “the throne of His father David  And so here He is raised “unto David



The latter part of the verse also emphasizes the fact that His rule is first and foremost in connection with the LAND.  For we venture to translate eretz (the world here) not “earth,” but “land,” and so bring it into conformity with the parallel passage in 33: 15, where the word is translated “land  For while not for one moment seeming to deny that in the future God’s Anointed will reign [in manifested glory] over the whole earth (see Dan. 2: 39; Zech. 14: 9), still it is first and foremost He is presented to all mankind as the “Ruler in Israel” (Micah 2: 2).  And what can be more fitting and proper than that the seat of government should be among the chosen Race - Jerusalem the great metropolis of the earth [in the “Age” to come], a joy and a rejoicing as the city of the great King.



2.  The next particular given to us is that in that future time of blessing Judah and Israel, the two houses or kingdoms, the Twelve Tribes, shall be united again and share the same blessings.



“In His days (that is, in the days of the BRANCH) Judah shall be saved.


And Israel shall dwell safely” (23: 6).



Surely this scene depicts a restored and happy people, dwelling in tranquillity and peace.  All the past sufferings, many and poignant as they have been, forgotten in the joy of the present.  “Weeping may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the morning  And the chosen people look back and rejoice in the LORD.  Their prayer of sorrow and mourning has been heard: “Turn again our captivity, O LORD, as the streams in the south  And the gracious and loving God has turned again their captivity, and brought them back from their wanderings among the peoples of the earth.  It is a great deliverance, a marvellous restoration.  No wonder that the “Chosen Vessel” should exclaim, “What shall the receiving of them be BUT LIFE FROM THE DEAD” (Rom. 11: 15).*


[* See also the Apostle Paul’s one desire in Phil. 3: 10, 11 and cp. Col. 3: 23, 24 with Luke 20: 35; Heb. 11: 35b; Rev. 20: 4-6.]



The two hundred and fifteen years of Egyptian bondage will seem almost as nothing when compared to hundreds of years of dispersion and wandering among the nations.  Even the LORD regards it in this light.  So we read: “Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that they shall no more say, the LORD liveth which brought up the children of Israel (twelve tribes) out of the land of Egypt; but


The Lord liveth which brought up the seed of the house of Israel (taken in the widest sense, i.e., the twelve tribes, all Israel), out of the north country, and from ALL countries whither I had driven them, and they shall dwell in their own land” (23: 7, 8).



But what is the foundation of their joy and rejoicing?  It cannot be the mere fact of their restoration, for that in itself, apart from the assurance of Jehovah, was no guarantee that they should not be despised again.  Do we not rather find it in the latter part of the verse which speaks of salvation of Judah and the safety of Israel?  “And this is His (BRANCH’S) name by which He [Page 65] shall be called THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS  In Him is true Salvation, in Him is true safety!  Assuredly the change which shall come over Israel will be great, when they shall hail the LORD as their righteousness.  These people who, in the past ages, down the centuries of time, had boasted of their own righteousness, who had thousands of years before by the mouths of their ancestors declared their willingness to keep the Law (“All that the Lord hath spoken we will do”); Who, “being ignorant of God’s righteousness and going about to establish their own righteousness had not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God,” are now brought to submission by the [bodily] revelation of [their] Messiah.  Was ever such a wonderful case of true conversion to the LORD?



And in bringing this article to a close, let us note how in the person of the glorified LORD and Saviour the Jew and the Gentile meet.



The “LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS” is the present joy and hope of His people among the Gentiles.



“But Him are ye in Christ Jesus, Who of God is made unto us wisdom and RIGHTEOUSNESS, and sanctification, and redemption” (1 Cor. 1: 30).



The glory and rejoicing of His particular people will be when they shall be turned to the Lord, and be found in Him, not having their “own righteousness which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith  May God be praised that He is indeed





*       *       *

[Page 74]





Let us now turn to some passages in chapters 30-33, taking chapter 33 first, as this has something in common with chapter 23, which we examined in the preceding article.  Again we have “the Branch” and “the LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS” referred to.



“In those days, and at that time (i.e., the time at which Jehovah will perform the good things promised unto the house of Israel and unto the house of Judah, the whole twelve tribes, verse 14), will I cause the BRANCH (Tsemach) of righteousness to grow up unto David, and he shall execute judgment and righteousness in the land” (verse 15).  An almost similar passage to 23: 5, but where we read “in the earth” instead of “in the land”; which expression we ventured to translate “in the land” as here, both being the equivalent of “ba-aretz” of the original.



“In those days Judah shall be saved,

And Jerusalem shall dwell safely



Here we find Jerusalem, once again the holy city, substituted for “Israel” of 23: 6; and instead of the ending in 23: 6, which attaches the title “the Lord our Righteousness” to the BRANCH of Jehovah, it is said of Jerusalem, “and this is the name by which she shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS  Thus the authorised version, upon which Lowth remarks, “Nor is there any greater impropriety in giving the name of Jehovah to a city than to an altar, Jehova-nissi (Ex. 17: 15), and Jehovah-shalom (Judges 6: 24), in token that the Lord was author of those mercies of which the said altars were designed to be monuments.  So the servants of God are described in Revelation as having His name written on their forehead (Rev. 3: 12, 14: 1-11)



In this connection also, we refer to a similar prophecy in Ezekiel 48: 35.  “And the name of the city from that day shall be ‘The Lord is there.’”  Just in passing we would direct attention to Rotherham’s translation, “And this is that which shall be proclaimed to her, Yahweh our righteousness,” which has a great deal to be said in its favour.  But now looking carefully at this 33rd chapter it is remarkable with what progressive minuteness and emphasis Jeremiah declared the restoration of Israel.



1. “I will reveal unto them the abundance of peace and truth” (verse 6).



2. “I will cause the captivity of Judah and the captivity of Israel to return,

and will build them as at the first” (verse 7).



3. “For I will cause to return the captivity of the LAND,

as at the first, saith the LORD” (verse 11).



4. “Behold the days come, saith the LORD that I will perform that good thing which I have promised

unto the house of Israel, and to the house of Judah” (verse 14).



5. “For thus saith the LORD.  David shall never want a man

to sit upon the throne of the house of Israel” (verse 17).



6. “The two families which the LORD hath chosen” (verse 24).



7. … “The seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, for I will cause their captivity to return,

and have mercy on them” (verse 26).



From which seven passages we glean the following facts: 1. That the captivity of Judah and Israel, which must include the twelve tribes, will return, for this is the good thing promised to both houses.  2. That [ALL] the land shall revert to its former and lawful owners.  3. That the true descendant and representative of the royal house of David shall sit upon the throne of Israel (cp. Luke 1: 32. 33).  4. That both families, though it was tauntingly asserted that the Lord had cast them off, should certainly return from captivity; and this based [Page 75] on that sure and absolute unconditional covenant which God made with day and night (verses 20, 25), referring us to the assured promise of God to Noah, “While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease” (Gen. 8: 22).  5. That the natural seed, the descendants of those three great progenitors of the Israelitish race, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, should return, a passage surely which precludes even the remotest idea that the spiritual seed are intended.  6. And finally that the Lord will reveal unto all the tribes the abundance of peace and truth, in other words, Messiah shall be to them the Prince of Peace, and the manifestation of Truth in their conversion.



We will now look at Chapters 30 and 31.  And we may observe upon these, as upon chapter 33 that the various ways in which Jeremiah notifies the persons to whom his [divine] prophecy is addressed leave no room to doubt to what people they must be specifically applied.  Chapter 30: “I will bring again the captivity of My people Israel and Judah” (verse 3).  “These are the words that the LORD spake concerning Israel and concerning Judah” (verse 4).  “Therefore fear not, O my servant Jacob, saith the LORD, neither be dismayed, O Israel” (verse 10).  “I will bring again the captivity of Jacob’s tents” (verse 18).  “This is Zion whom no man seeketh after” (verse 17).



And in chapter 31.  “All the families of Israel” (verse 1).  “Behold the days come, saith the LORD, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast” (verse 27).  “Behold the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah” (verse 31).  All which passages most definitely assure us that God will in the future, for there has been no such fulfilment in the past, restore all the twelve tribes included in the two separate houses of Israel and Judah to their own land and will there deal very graciously with them.



And the prophet is very exact as to when certain events predicted in these chapters 30 and 31 shall take place.  “The days come” (30: 3; 31: 27; 31: 38).  “It shall come to pass in that day” (30: 8).  “At the same time” (31: 1).  “In those days” (31: 29).  All which marks the time are bound together by the time-expression of “the latter days,” which we have already seen refer particularly and exclusively to the Christian dispensation especially in its closing portion.



Beside the reiterated promise of restoration given in these chapters we have also the following important details mentioned.



1. JERUSALEM IS TO BE REBUILT, and that upon her ancient foundations.



“For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will bring again the captivity of Jacob’s tents, and have mercy upon his dwelling places; and the city shall be builded upon her own heap and the palace shall remain after the manner thereof” (30: 18).  To the word “heap” the A.V. gives a marginal note of alternate reading “little hill,” and the R.V. “mound,” and immediately our thoughts turn to that part of Jerusalem called Mount Zion.  “Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, Mount Zion, the sides of the north, the city of the great King (Ps. 48: 2).  But why limit our thoughts to only one part of the city?  Why not refer to the whole city, all Jerusalem.  And further, though tel certainly means a hill or mound, it also means, as one lexicon has it, “a heap, peculiar of ruins,” and another lexicon, “commonly a heap of rubbish,” both giving as reference Deut. 13: 17; Josh. 8: 28.  So, then, shall we not be safe in taking this verse to mean that in the future as regards the time of the prophecy the city Jerusalem [and Messiah’s Millennial Temple*] shall be rebuilt, even upon the site of her ruins, all of it, including Mount Zion and the place thereof?  And this view is particularly supported by the words of Chapter 31: 38, “Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that the city shall be built TO THE LORD from the tower of Hananeel unto the gate of the corner, and the measuring line shall yet go forth over against it upon the hill Gareb, and shall compass about to Goath


[* See Mark 11: 17: “My house shall be called a house of prayer FOR ALL NATIONS.” And again in Isaiah 56: 7: … “even themforeigners that join themselves to Jehovah’ verse 6.) will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt-offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples]



Nor is this, at the present time, a mere empty dream of the future, for already quite a new city of Jerusalem has arisen on the heap or ruins of the old, a modern city in the fullest sense of the word; building has for some time past being going on extensively, and everything points to the fact that ere long the city shall become a most important metropolis.  But a terrible time of stress awaits the true and lawful inhabitants of the city and land.  It is



2. THE TIME OF JACOB’S TROUBLE.  We hope, God willing, in the next article, to bring forth the testimony of Daniel which deals in great measure with the time of Antichrist, and particularly of “Jacob’s trouble.” And therefore here will only put forward what is told us in this 30th chapter, and also mention the fact that by the expression “time of Jacob’s trouble” is meant that fearful test of Israel spoken by Daniel the prophet as “a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation, even to the same time” (12: 1); referred to by our Lord as “the great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matt. 24: 21); and described by John in Revelation chapters 13 and 17.  And so the prophet Jeremiah here when speaking of it says, “Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it, it is even the time of Jacob’s trouble” (verse 7).



But awful and terrible as that day is, Jacob shall be brought through.



3. “BUT HE SHALL BE SAVED OUT OF IT, for it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD of hosts, that I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and will burst thy bonds, and strangers shall no more serve themselves of him” (verse 8).



And again in verses 23 and 24.



“Behold the whirlwind of the Lord goeth forth with fury, a continuing (or cutting) whirlwind; it shall fall upon the head of the wicked.  And the fierce anger of the LORD shall not return, until He have done it, and [Page 76] until He have performed the intents of His heart: and in the latter days ye shall consider it



All over-ruled by God in His loving mercy.  Even the awful time of “Jacob’s trouble  “I will correct thee in measure and will not leave thee altogether unpunished” (verse 11).  “I have wounded thee with the wound of an enemy, with the chastisement of a cruel one, for the multitude of thine iniquity, because thy sins were increased” (verse 14).  “Because thy sins were increased I have done these things unto thee” (verse 15).  And the punishment of their enemies.  “I will punish all that oppress them” (verse 20).



And after the tribulation of that time, and the mighty deliverance by Messiah, a day of brightness dawns, growing more and more brilliant with the glorious things which Jehovah will do for them.



Space will not allow us to quote at length.  We would call attention to the twenty-sixth “I will’s” of gracious promise contained in these two chapters.  Particularly read 31: 8-14, with its grand refrain of joy and rejoicing.  “Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together to the goodness of the Lord” … It all points to the true conversion of Israel to God, summed up in the words, so emphasized in Hosea: “And ye shall be My people and I will be your God” (30: 22).



4. THE NEW COVENANT.  This is the climax of God’s dealings with Israel.  All leads up to this, the ingathering, the fatherly correction, the chastisement of enemies, the rescue of the chosen people from their oppressors, all culminates in, and leads to this.



“Behold the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a NEW COVENANT with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah” (verse 31).



“And this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel.

After those days saith the LORD,

I will put My law in their inward parts,

And write in their hearts,

And I will be their God,

And they shall be My people” (verse 33).



Such is the New Covenant which God shall make with His people Israel.  It will be absolutely unconditional as the covenant He made with Noah concerning the earth (Gen. 8: 20), and with Abram concerning the land (Gen. 15), and with David concerning the throne (2 Sam. 7: 16).  Man is not a partner in it as he was at Sinai (Jer. 31: 31).  It is all on God’s part, God’s side, “I WILL  It is ratified in the Blood of God’s dear Son.  “And He took the cup and gave thanks, and gave it to them saying, Drink ye of it: for this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins” (Matt. 26: 27, 28).



We have another reference to this covenant in Jeremiah 32: 40, where the word olam translated “everlasting” in this and eleven other places in the Old Testament should be “age-lasting” or age-abiding.  That it is the same covenant as the one referred to as New in chapter 31: 31 is undeniable, for the context (verses 37-44) assures us that God promises the same things to Israel as He does in relation to the New Covenant; to gather them out of all countries, to be their God, to give them one heart and one way, to put His fear into their hearts that they shall not depart from Him.  One verse we must quote for it is so pertinent to our subject, “Yea, I will rejoice over them and do them good, and I will plant them in this land ASSUREDLY WITH MY WHOLE HEART AND WITH MY WHOLE SOUL” (verse 41).



Summarizing, therefore, what we find in the prophecy of Jeremiah just considered, we learn:



1. That the prophecy cannot be referred to the Babylonian restoration.



2. Its times are the times of the BRANCH.



3. That they are termed “the latter days



4. That Jerusalem [and the Lord’s Temple there] shall be rebuilt.



5. That there shall be a great tribulation - the time of Jacob’s trouble.



6. That he shall be delivered by the mercy of God.



7. That Jehovah will make a NEW COVENANT with His people Israel.  (See also Heb. 8: 8-13, 13: 20).



*       *       *

[Page 104]





ALTHOUGH the Book of Daniel does not mention the Restoration, nor directly refer to the Conversion of Israel, it is our privilege to glance at certain passages in that book, as they tell us of occurrences which will take place between those two events.  It also brings to our notice a personage who shall be instrumental in bringing those occurrences to pass.  We have reference again and again to some Great One who shall rule with universal sway, and shall tread down and persecute the people and saints of the Most High.



So emphatic is Scripture as to the individual personality of this great persecuting power that we have no hesitation in looking for a future cruel Lord, who shall fulfil all the prophecies in Daniel and other parts of Scripture concerning him.  For this view we feel there needs no apology, though our readers are doubtless aware that many look upon the prophetical portions of Holy Writ regarding Antichrist as referring to one or other truly antichristian systems, with a succession of rulers, either to Papal Rome, with all her abominable superstitions, idolatries, and persecution of the saints of God, or to the Mohammedan power with her bigoted cruelties to Christian and Jew.



That there are and have been many Antichrists is not to be denied (1 John 2: 18); nor, that in the past there have doubtless been partial fulfilments of the things predicted of the future personal Antichrist; but, taking the full scope of the prophecies in the Word, we are fully justified in looking forward to one who shall “fill up” all that is spoken of the great arch enemy of God and Christ.



We find there are twelve titles given to him:-


1. The “Little Horn” (Dan. 7: 8).


2. “The King of Babylon” (Isa. 14: 4).


3. “The Assyrian” (Isaiah 30: 31; 31: 8; Micah 5: 5, 6).


4. “Licifer, Son of the Morning” (Isa. 14: 12).


5. “The King of Fierce Countenance” (Dan. 8: 23).


6. “A Vile Person” (Dan. 11: 21).


7. The Wilful King” (Dan. 11: 36).

[Page 105]

8. “The Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2: 3).


9. “The Wicked (or lawless) One” (2 Thess. 2: 8).


10. “The Beast with Ten Horns” (Rev. 13: 1).


11. “The Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2: 23).


12 “The Desolator”* (Dan. 9: 27; 11: 31).



* The word translated “desolate” in the A.V. is in the verbal form meaning the causer of desolation, i.e., the desolator.



The various passages in which these titles occur tell us very plainly hoe the world generally, and God’s people Israel in particular, will fare at his hands, and such an important and terrible part does this great ruler take in the affairs of the future that it will be well for us to learn from the various passages of the Word referring to him, of his personality, character, influence and power.



The Scriptures particularly alluded to are Dan. 7: 8, 23-25; 8: 9-12, 23-25; 9: 27; 11: 21- 12: 1; 2 Thess. 3: 3-10; and Rev. 13.



1. The apocalypse and parousia of the “Man of Sin



Nothing is told us as to his antecedents.  He is placed before us as a POWER.  He is revealed!  He is here!  Spiritualism and Theosophy are preparing the way for the revelation of this false Christ.  The materialization of spirit forms is a fact, and is no question of possibility that a human mother may have a demon-begotten son.  The Order of the Star of the East consists of adherents who are looking forward to a great world-teacher and leader, one “understanding dark sentences” (Dan. 8: 23), a prodigy of intellectual power, of mighty magnetic influence.  When the time is ripe such an one will be revealed.



2. His quiet accession of power.  He will not obtain his exalted position by force of arms, for “he shall come in peaceably and obtain the kingdom by flatteries” (Dan. 11: 21).  In fact, duplicity and deceit seem to be the prevailing principle of all his actions for a time.  He seems a past master in cunning.  For “he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand,” and even “by peace shall destroy many” (Dan. 8: 25).



3. His conduct as king.  But once firmly established on his throne he shows what manner of man he really is.  He becomes the “king of fierce countenance” (Dan. 8: 23).  He is a great and diplomatic warrior (Dan. 11: 22-29), and a mighty persecutor (Dan. 8: 24).  The only god that he owns or honours is the “god of forces” (Dan. 11: 37).



4. His arrogance and pride.  Like most men with great personal force of character, Antichrist will have a most exalted opinion of himself and his powers; “he shall magnify himself in his heart” (Dan. 8: 25).  And proving himself head and shoulders above his compeers in wealth, position, intellect, and diplomacy, he next arrogates to himself divine honours. First of all he blasphemes God.  “He shall speak words against the Most High” (Dan. 7: 25).  “He shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods” (Dan. 11: 36).  “He shall not regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor any god” (Dan. 11: 37).  “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies” (Rev. 13: 5).



The next advance in his career is only what we might expect.  In every particular the vast superior of his fellow-men, owing allegiance to none, believing in none but himself, he lays claim to divine worship.  “He shall exalt and magnify himself above every god” (Dan. 11: 36).  “He as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thess. 2: 4).  His claim meets with ready response, “for they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him” (Rev. 13: 4)?  “All that dwell upon the earth shall worship him” (verse 8).



Such is the general outline of this wonderful and truly awful personage, the future Antichrist.  And those who do not take God’s Word as it is written, or who range themselves on the side of “respectable” commentators, smile and smile of incredulity and doubt as to these things being possible.  And were we tracing the career of any ordinary human being, however great, we should feel we were taxing to its utmost the credulity of our readers.  In fact, it is the marvellous description given of Antichrist in the Word, that strengthens beyond doubt our future expectation instead of fixing our attention on a line of Popes or Mohammedan Caliphs however gifted and diplomatic and cruel.  The attributes and actions claimed by the Scriptures for Antichrist can apply to no ordinary, or even extraordinary human being, but when we are told whence he derives his [deception and] power, we can at once quite credit all that is revealed.



5. His Satanic power.  “His power shall be mighty, but not by his own power” (Dan. 8: 24).  We immediately ask, “Then by whose power?”’ and 2 Thess. 2: 8, 9, tells us of “that wicked … whose presence (parousia) is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs and lying wonders  When we consider that he is not only specially called forth by Satan (Rev. 13: 1), but invested with all Satan’s authority and energised by him, then surely we can understand in some degree what a fearful being this Superman is.  Gifted, crafty, cruel. blasphemous, antitheistic, persecuting, such is Antichrist, the agent and vicegerent of Satan.



But we would specially see how Israel fares at his hands.



6. Antichrist and Israel.  We can picture the chosen people representatively restored to their own land - still in doubt, many in actual infidelity - yet rejoicing in the fact that they have come into their own, that they are in “the land  They have doubtless heard of the great World-ruler, nay, most likely have been brought under his influence to some extent, it may be, have received with gratitude some special mark of his favour.  The words of the Master are verified, “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not; if another shall come in his own name him will ye receive” (John 5: 43).  For a time all goes well, the privileges social and commercial extended to all nations are shared in by the Jews.  It is to Antichrist’s advantage to pacify, and ingratiate himself with them.  They have to some [Page 106] extent become a power, and must be reckoned with as such.  So in due course he makes a covenant with them for seven years (Dan. 9: 27).  What the terms of this covenant may be we are not told; but most likely it grants them some commercial and religious advantages, with the promise of free and undisturbed practice of their religious rites.  Once again, day by day, the morning and evening Sacrifice is offered.  The Paschal lamb is duly slain.  Sweet incense ascends to the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob in the recently-built Temple at Jerusalem.  Quiet rest, peace, prosperity reign!  Is it any wonder that to many of the [Jewish] people comes the thought that this considerate and sympathetic monarch is none other than the long-promised Messiah whom they have waited for.  Thus for three and a half years.



Then suddenly comes a terrible change!  The supreme lord makes a peremptory pronouncement.  He declares that the league and covenant of three and a half years previous, solemnly signed and sealed, is a mere “scrap of paper,” of no account.  “And in the midst of the seven” he shall break the covenant (Dan. 9: 27).  Whatever national privileges were granted must now end.  The religious services in the Temple must at once cease.  “He shall cause the Sacrifice and the oblation to cease” (Dan. 9: 27; cp. 8: 13; 11: 31; 12: 11).



Yet still further God’s people debased and humbled and scandalized by the “overspreading of abominations  Henceforth “the Abomination of Desolation,” spoken of by Christ Himself as “standing where it ought not” (Matt. 24: 21), is mentioned in the synchronous visions of Daniel (8: 13; 11: 31; 12: 11).  As if it were not sacrilege enough that the religious part of the covenant should be broken, the Desolator goes still further.  The scene of Dan. 6 is repeated.  Antichrist himself “as God sitteth in the Temple of God,” and lays claim to divine honour and worship.  He decrees that all nations shall fall down and worship him.



From this time begins the most awful persecution in the history of Israel.  God knows they have passed through terrible times.  There have been twenty-seven sieges of Jerusalem itself in the past.  But for frightfulness and horror this will excel.  Well may Daniel say, “there shall be a time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time” (12: 1); and our blessed Lord declare, “And except those days should be shortened there should no flesh be saved” (Matt. 24: 22).  For three years and a half the people of God are given into the hands of this ruthless persecutor, who “wears out the saints of the Most High” (Dan. 7: 25); “who thinks to change times and laws”; who destroys many of “the mighty and holy people” (Dan. 8: 24; who “makes war with the saints” (Rev. 13: 7).



7. Antichrist’s final battle.  At last he is determined to crush for ever those troublesome people.  Jerusalem has become to him “a burdensome stone  So with his allies he invests Jerusalem and the adjacent parts.  “He shall enter into the glorious land” (Dan. 11: 41); “and he shall plant the tabernacles of his place between the seas and the glorious holy mountain” (verse 45).  Dire is the distress of Israel, now apparently at their last extremity, with no prospect of help.  But in this case, as in many others, “man’s extremity is God’s opportunity,” and just as the very last vestige of hope is about to vanish, Christ the true Messiah is revealed from heaven.



8. The rule and power of Antichrist crushed.  “He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes, but he shall be broken without hand” (Dan. 8: 25).  He shall be destroyed by the manifestation of the [bodily] presence of the Lord.  He shall be hurled into Tophet, “into a lake of fire burning with brimstone  Such is the end of the arch enemy of God and of Christ.



*       *       *

[Page 112]





We come now in chronological order to the Book of the prophet Joel, which we regard as one continuous prophecy, and claim the entire prophecy as a prediction of events to be accomplished after a coming restoration of the Jews.



Joel’s prophecy is undated.  It seems clear, however, that as Hosea was appointed prophet especially for the ten tribes of Israel, so Joel exercised that sacred office for Judah and Benjamin.  The unity of the book as a whole is so evident that there is no need to insist upon it.  “No references are made to time, because it looks onward to the time of the end, and to the events that will usher in ‘the Day of the Lord’” (The Companion Bible. P. 1224).



A perusal of the whole of this short prophecy will be found edifying, but for our present purpose we would dwell specially on certain important details given in chapters 2 and 3, passing over chapter 1, which contains a vivid description of the wasting and desolution of the Holy Land by locusts and other noxious insects.  This may, perhaps, indicate to us the desolate condition of Palestine during the dispersion of these last days.  But in chapter 2: 1-11 the prophet predicts an invasion of the land by an army of men, “a great people and a strong,” symbolised by the locusts of 1: 4.  This invasion is horrible and terrifying.  “Before their face the people (i.e., “of the land”) shall be much pained: all faces shall gather blackness” (verse 6).  As stated of the awful time through which Israel has to pass at some future day that “there shall be a time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time” (Dan. 12: 1), so of the fearful invading and devastating army it is said, “there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, even to the years of many generations” (verse 2).  Of what siege of Jerusalem and its adjacent parts in the past can this be said?  Certainly not of any of those to which the commentators would direct our attention.  The Assyrians under Sennacherib never invested Jerusalem.  “He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with a shield, nor cast a bank against it” (2 Kings 19: 32).  This was the word of the LORD against the King of Assyria, and was literally fulfilled.  Nor can the description apply to the siege by the Babylonian armies, for even outside the testimony of Scripture, Josephus tells us (Antiq. X. vi. 3), “Now, a little time afterwards, the King of Babylon made an expedition against Jehoiakim, whom he received [into the city], and this out of fear of the foregoing predictions of this prophet (Jeremiah), as supposing that he should suffer nothing that was terrible, because he neither shut the gates, nor fought against him  See also chapter 7: 1 of same book.  So that though the Babylonians took the city there was nothing that happened at all to correspond to the description given in this chapter of Joel.



Nor can we apply the particulars here to the Romans under Titus.  The context forbids this.  And it is ever important for readers of the Word to pay attention to what precedes and to what follows any passage.  That excellent text book of Scriptural study, How to enjoy the Bible, by our late much-revered and deeply-lamented Editor, has a section (pp. 264-303), under the heading, “The Context always essential to the Interpretation of Words  The same is equally important, in cases perhaps even more so, with regard to passages, especially those of a prophetical nature.  And the immediate context of this description of the invading armies against Judah and Jerusalem absolutely forbids its being interpreted of the Roman instrument under Titus [at 70 A.D.]



For, following that siege was there any exhortation to “turn unto the Lord your God”?  Years before had not the Lord Jesus Himself pronounced the sentence, “Your house is left unto you desolate”?  Had He not with tears declared that the things which belonged to their peace were hid from their eyes?  And from this we gather that even before Messiah’s death judical impenitence had settled upon Judah as a national punishment for their many provocations.  Nor were those foes removed afar off as is promised here (verse 20), nor was there any outpouring of the Spirit from on high as also is foretold in verses 28, 29.



So that seeing the things predicted in this chapter as following the onslaught of enemies described in verses 2-11, did not occur either in the Assyrian, Babylonian, or Roman invasions, we are forced to the conclusion that they must be fulfilled in [the yet] distant future. 



In verses 12-17 we have a glimpse of the religious condition of the Jews after their return representatively to their own land prior to the [coming] advent of Messiah, for we may take it for granted that Joel depicts a people as in their own land, enjoying their religious privileges, having their elders and priests who are exhorted to gather betwixt the porch and the altar, and cry in supplication, “Spare thy people, O LORD, and give not thine heritage to reproach, that the heathen should rule over them: wherefore should they say among the people where is thy God” (verse 17).



And what is the response?  “While they are yet speaking I will hear  “Then will the LORD be jealous for His land and pity His people; yea, the LORD will answer and say unto His people, ‘Behold I will send you corn and wine and oil and ye shall be satisfied therewith; and I will no more make you a reproach among the heathen” (verses 18, 19).  Then a further promise follows that the “fearful and great army shall be removed” (verse 20).  Notice, “I will remove far from you the northern army,” not “you shall, remove him by fighting,” but “I, the LORD will remove them,” by My [Page 113] almighty and sovereign power.  This “northern army” comprises those of Dan. 11, Rev. 9.  They are the confederate armies under the leadership of Antichrist.  This is clear from the statement, “he hath done great thingsi.e., he magnified himself to do great things.  cp. Dan.8: 9-11; 11: 36, &c., and see the article following.  This twentieth verse is an epitome of more descriptive scenes of Antichrist’s overthrow as given in Daniel and Ezekiel and Zechariah.



As is always the case in connection with the future deliverance of God’s chosen people, blessings temporal and spiritual flow.  “Fear not, O LAND, be glad and rejoice, for the LORD will do great things. … Be glad then, ye children of Zion, and rejoice in the LORD your God. … And ye shall eat in plenty, and be satisfied, and praise the name of the LORD your God that hath dealt wondrously with you, and My people shall never be ashamed.  And ye shall know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am the LORD your God, and none else: and My people shall never be ashamed” (verses 21-27).



And this is still further followed by a great and universal outpouring of the Holy Spirit, not limited as on the day of Pentecost to those who were gathered together in Jerusalem, but “I will pour out My Spirit upon ALL flesh



That this prophecy was not exhausted at Pentecost is clear, for again, we must read it in relation to the context, both preceding and following, and it is after the subjugation and punishment of Israel’s enemies, after temporal blessings have begun to be poured out, when “in those days, and at that time I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem” (3: 1).



And it is this verse which connects and continues the subject of chapter 2 with chapter 3, thus making one complete prophecy.  For as in chapter 2: 11 showed us the overthrow of the invading army or armies by the power and might of the LORD, so chapter 3 continues the subject: “I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehosophat, and will plead with them there for My people and for My heritage Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted My LAND” (verse 2).



A reference without doubt to the scene in Matt. 25: 31-46, where “all nations” are gathered before the Son of man, not “the description of the last judgment,” but the judgment of the nations for their treatment of Israel in the past.



The locality of this judgment is the valley of Jehoshaphat (verses 2 and 12).  But are we to understand the long steep and winding valley running north, east and south between the Mount of Olives and the eastern wall of Jerusalem, and generally called the valley of Jehoshaphat?



Paxton, in his Sacred Geography, p. 338, makes the following suggestive remarks: “The term is employed by Joel is considered by the best commentators to be not the name of any particular place, but a figurative allusion to the meaning of the original word, “the Lord judgeth,” and importing that God would judge the heathen who had oppressed Israel, and in some decisive manner overthrow the power of Antichrist at the restoration of the Jews to Palestine  That this is an important suggestion and worthy of consideration is clear when we carefully look at verse 16, “The LORD also shall roar out of Zion, and utter His voice from Jerusalem”; whence we may infer that “the valley of decision” (verse 14), in which Israel’s enemies are to be destroyed by the mighty voice of the LORD, is near Jerusalem; and not only near Jerusalem but near Zion, the south-east quarter of Jerusalem; for out of Zion does the Lord’s voice come; in other words, Joel does give us reason to infer that his “valley of decision” where we know the place biblically called Vale of Hinnom, or Tophet, will be, for as we have already seen it is certainly at Tophet that part of the invading army will be destroyed, and that Antichrist will meet his doom.



Without dwelling at length on each particular given here of this great conflict between Israel and their foes, we see the summons to the mighty conflict in verses 9-14, the command, “put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow: for their wickedness is great” (verse 13), connecting this with the scene of judgment in Rev. 14: 18, “Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth: for her grapes are fully ripe.  And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth and cast it into the wine-press of the wrath of God.  And the wine-press was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the wine-press, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs  Great and terrible shall be the events of “the day of the LORD,” “the heavens and the earth shall shake, but the LORD will be the hope of His people, and the strength of the children of Israel” (all the tribes).  “So shall ye know that I am the LORD your God, dwelling in Zion, My holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall be no strangers pass through her any more” (verses 16, 17).  See also verses 20, 21.



To summarize we gather the following particulars:-



1. The prophecy of Joel is one continuous foretelling of events

which shall happen to the restored Israelites.



2. That the people shall be enjoying their religious privileges in their own land.



3. That invading forces shall attack and harass and fight against the restored people.



4. That in two places there shall be a mighty overthrow of Israel’s enemies, the one between the Dead Sea,

“the east sea” (2: 20); and the other in the south-east of Jerusalem, the Vale of Hinnom,

Tophet, called by Joel the valley of Jehoshaphat.



5. That it is this valley of decision that the LORD will plead for His people, and chastise their enemies.



6. That there shall be a great outpouring of the spirit of the Lord,

not only for a few chosen and elected ones, but on ALL flesh.

[Page 114]


7. And that by this marvellous effusion of the [Holy] Spirit, we are not only to understand the blessing of Jew and Gentile, but the true and real conversion of the gathered tribes, thus making it possible

for the LORD their God to dwell in Zion His holy mountain,

and Jerusalem “the holiness” (3: 17, marg.).



*       *       *

[Page 124]





The last fourteen chapters (35-48) of Ezekiel contain such clear and concise prophecies concerning the restoration, conflicts, conversion, and establishment of Israel in their own land, on their own soil, that, were there no other testimony in the Word (and we have produced abundance), we venture to assert that no one, except by the most flagrant system of spiritualization, could deny that such restoration either had taken place, or must be relegated to the future.  And that it is to be the future we must look for the [literal] fulfilment is certain, for not only have we such events as are foretold never yet happened, but with respect to certain of them, and therefore by contextual reading applicable to all, we are told it will be “after many days.” “in the latter years,” “in the latter days” (38: 8, 16): expressions which point to the future not only in the prophet’s day, but as regards our own times [also].



The summary of the fourteen chapters referred to is briefly thus:-



Chapter 35.  Judgments on enemies as represented by Seir.



Chapter 36.  Prophecies unto the mountains of Israel with promise of restoration (verses 9-12).



Chapter 37.  The vision of the valley of dry bones with emphatic promise of RESURRECTION literal or spiritual, or both, and restoration (verses 12-14); and the object lesson of the two sticks united in one, teaching that the two houses of Judah and Israel shall be one, which has not been so

since the disruption in the reign of Rehoboam.



Chapters 38 and 39.  Invasion of the land and assault upon Israel by certain Gentile enemies,

and the punishment God inflicts upon them.



Chapters 40-48.  A full and careful prophetical description of the wondrous [Millennial] Temple

which shall be erected [upon the same site as Solomon’s Temple] in the land of restored Israel,

with its appointments, ordinances, and sacrifices.



Before going further there is one word used again and again by the prophet which is well worthy of our notice.  It is the word “LAND” in our versions, a translation of two words in the Hebrew: eretz, the more common word used so frequently throughout the Bible, and many times by Ezekiel himself.  But some twenty-six times he uses the word adamah, which means the soil, the very ground itself, emphasizing the fact that it is that particular portion of territory to which the people [of Israel] will be restored and which they will enjoy.



It would be quite outside the scope of these papers to dwell in detail on each of the concluding chapters of the book, much as we should desire it.  But to chapters 38 and 39 we would call particular attention for they give us certain details, at which we have already seen other prophets hint, namely, who the marauding hosts are, who under the leadership of Antichrist, shall invade and molest the chosen people.



Chapter 38 begins thus:- “And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Son of man set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophecy against him, and say, Thus saith the LORD GOD, Behold I am against thee, O Gog, the prince of Meshech and Tubal” (verses 1-3).



Now allied with Gog are certain others, “Persia, Ethiopia and Libya, Gomer and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands, and many people with thee” (verses 5, 6).



These all conspire to go up and destroy Palestine; “I will go up to the land of unwalled villages, I will go to them that are at rest and dwell safely, all of them dwelling without walls neither bars or gates, to take a spoil and to take a prey” (verses 11, 12).



But there is a decided protest made by certain others named in verse 13, “Sheba, and Dedan, and the merchants of Tarshish, with all the young lions thereof, shall say unto thee, Art thou come to take spoil?  Hast thou gathered thy company to take a prey? to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to take a great spoil  This protest certainly implies “not with our consent



Now the question before us is are we able to identify the peoples mentioned in this chapter, and the answer to the question is, we assuredly can.  For the following geographical explanations I am much indebted, as also for many other suggestions in these articles to an exhaustive work on the same subject by my dear father in the year 1860.* In that work he devotes a whole chapter of some forty-six large closely printed pages to the discussion of the locality and genealogy of the peoples mentioned in these two chapters.  Of course, it would be impossible to put before our readers all the details given, the barest epitome must suffice.


* “Notes on the Restoration and Conversion of Israel,” by Walter Chamberlain, M.A., vicar of St. John’s, Bolton, Lancashire.  London.  Wertheim & Macintosh.



In the Hebrews, verse 2 reads, “Gog, the land of Magog, prince Rosh and Tubal and Meshech.” Gog is the name given to the leader of the confederacy.  Is Gog the Antichrist?  This name occurs only here, in chapter 39, and 1 Chron.  5: 4.  Rosh in the A.V. is translated “chief” or head, in accordance with many other passages in which Rosh is rendered “head,” but the R.V., following the Septuagint, Vulgate, Aquila, and Jerome, take it as a proper name, “prince of Rosh  If Rosh be taken as a proper name, it my point to the Rossi or Russia, but we need not insist on this in order to establish the identity, as we shall soon see when speaking of Meshech and Tubal.



Referring back to Genesis 10: 2-5, we find that some of the names mentioned in Ezekiel are included in the descendants of Japheth, and “by these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations” (verse 5).


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Now, roughly speaking, Japheth’s descendants inhabited Europe, Shem’s Asia Minor, Ham’s Africa.  So Gomer, Magol, Tubal, Meshech, Togarmah, Javan, Tarshish all belong to Europe.



MAGOG.  “The country of Magog is placed by ancient authority on E. and N. E. of the Black Sea; and therefore comprehends a territory now forming part of the Russian Empire



MESH AND TUBAL.  “The name Meshech is translated by the Septuagint Mesoch, and from the word the people called Moschi derived their Greek name.  The Moschi were, therefore, descendants of Meshech, and inhabited the country round the Moschic mountains lying at the eastern part of the Black Sea” … “Such were the first settlements of Magog, Meshech and Tubal, but their descendants penetrated into the wilds of Scythia, and peopled the dreary regions of the north of Meshech and Tubal are expressions in Ezekiel for that vast country



GOMER.  Originally Gomer and his three sons occupied at first the land of Asia Minor, but the sons of Gomer soon extended themselves beyond their original settlements, and now embrace three of the most numerous and civilized peoples of modern Europe, English, French and Germans.  It may be that from the expression, “Gomer and all his bands” (verse 6), we are particularly to understand united Germany.  [N.B.  Is not the German the Gomer-man?



TOGARMAH.  The Jews maintain that in Ezekiel Togarmah here as representing the Turcoman hordes of Central Asia in the immediate eastern quarters of Russia, in the sides of the north.



PERSIA, ETHIOPIA AND LIBYA.  Read of these as in the original, Paras, Cush, and Phut.



PARAS.  Little need be said.  We take him to be Persia (see Dan. 8: 20).  “The arm which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia” (Heb. Paras cp. 10: 13; 11: 2).



CUSH AND PHUT.  Both sons of Ham (Gen. 10: 6).  Cush here is Africa, though there is also an Arabian Cush.  Josephus asserts that the Cushites passed over the Red Sea and settled in Ethiopia (Ant. I. vi. 2).



PHUT inhabited that part of Africa from which the whole country took its name.  “Phut is the same as Libya, North Africa, West of Egypt, the Tripoli, Tunis and Algiers of our times



Such will be the confederacy against “my people Israel” in the “latter days  But there are certain others who protest, and would oppose them.  “Sheba and Dedan, and the merchants of Tarshish, with all the young lions thereof” (verse 13).



SHEBA may be taken as the Arabian Cushites.  Sheba and Dedan were the sons of Raamah, the son of Cush, but mentioned in Holy Writ in connection with Arabia (Jer. 25: 23, 24).  The Queen of Sheba was the “Queen of the South,” that is, Queen of Yemen or right hand.  The Jews reckoned their cardinal points when looking eastward; therefore the right hand would be the south.



And connected with Sheba is also


DEDAN, the name of the city in Southern Arabia, which may be regarded as the Aden of modern times, at the entrance to the Red Sea.



TARSHISH is mentioned some twenty-one times in Holy Writ, and we know that there were certain places called by this name, three we are sure of, namely, Tarshish in Cilicia (the Tarsus of St. Paul’s day); Tarshish in Spain (Tartessus, where the prophet Jonah essayed to flee to), and Tarshish in the Eastern Sea.



According to Gen. 10: 4, Tarshish was a son of Javan, the son of Japheth, whose descendants occupied Europe, and Tarshish may therefore be taken as a distinctly European power.  It is also mentioned in Ps. 72: 10, and Isa. 60: 9, as among the “isles,” and therefore, again, European.  It is spoken of as a mercantile and maritime people by Isaiah (60: 9) and Ezekiel (27: 25).  Having merchant ships (Ps. 48: 7; Isa. 2: 16).  Tarshish is not only mercantile, but also manufacturing (Jer. 10: 9; Ezek. 27: 12-25).



The writer of the work already referred to carefully traces the passages and meanings given to Tarshish in the Bible, and shows that whereas it is the name of an actual place, it is also used in a typical sense, signifying a maritime, mercantile, colonizing, manufacturing, war-like people in these last days, among the sons of Japheth, i.e., within the limits of Europe.  And in another shorter work on prophetical subjects he sums up his arguments in a larger book as following:- “Putting all together.  Ezekiel requires us to find in Europe among the isles of the Gentiles, in these latter times, a mercantile, colonizing, manufacturing, warlike power, such as Tyre, a great world’s market commanding the trade of East and West; but specially the trade of Eastern Seas.  That power, like Gog’s confederates, must be now before the world; and there is but one power that can answer such a description.  It is England



Thus we have depicted in this prophecy of Ezekiel the great future struggle which will take place in the Holy Land, and specially around the city of Jerusalem.  We have focussed our attention on those hostile alien adversaries of Israel, because at the present time when the principal belligerents are on the stage of the world, engaged in a desperate encounter for world-wide supremacy, such a careful survey is of intense importance and interest.  England, Germany, and Russia will once more be in conflict, Russia and Germany seeking to conquer and overthrow the peaceable dwellers in “the land of unwalled villages  England with her Allies uttering at least a strong protest against the act of vandalism.  All this, of course, if the interpretation here set forth be correct.  But this is true as regards those peoples whose geography and topography, however briefly, has been established.  With regard to Tarshish, it must be left a somewhat open question, but even in this case so closely do the various descriptions fit our own beloved land, that we are inclined to ask to what great power can they refer if not to England?



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In our last article we traced the countries and localities whence the marauding armies which shall at some future time overspread and besiege the “unwalled villages” of the land of God’s heritage.  The object of the invasion is manifest.  It is plunder the usual accompaniments of warfare!  But we also saw that the alien hosts will not have it all their own way.  Certain other peoples will at any rate utter a loud and vehement protest.



“Art thou come to take the spoil?


Hast thou gathered thy company to take a prey?


Yo carry away silver and gold,


To take away cattle and goods, to take a great spoil” (38: 13).



Whatever may be the result of that indignant protest, we gather that God will not allow His people to be utterly despoiled.  It is with an object that the Almighty has suffered them thus far.  God has a set purpose in all that He does, all that He allows to be done.  He permits these invading hosts “as a cloud to cover the land,” to the end that He may magnify His name.  “It shall be in the latter days, I will bring them against My land that the nations may know ME when I shall be sanctified in thee, O God, before their eyes” (verse 16).



And how is this brought about?  By a terrible overthrow of Antichrist and all his allies.  “There shall be a great shaking in the land of Israel” (verse 19).  It shall affect all creation (verse 20).  The whole power of the LORD shall be directed against the invading hosts, sword, pestilence, thunder, lightning, hail, tempest, all these shall be from the hand of God.  “Thus will I magnify Myself, and I will be known in the eyes of many nations, and they shall know that I am the LORD” (verse 23).



The following chapter, the 39th, gives us an idea of the awfulness of the overthrow, and its extent as to number.  The word of God to Gog is,


“Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, thou, and all thy bands, and the people that is with thee: I will give them unto the ravenous birds of every sort, and to the beasts of the field to be devoured:

thou shalt fall upon the open field, for I have spoken it, saith the Lord GOD” (verses 4, 5).



The whole chapter is devoted to the description of the mighty and decisive overthrow.  The followers of Gog shall find graves in the land of Israel.  So great shall be the number slaughtered that seven months shall be taken up with the buryings, and the land shall become polluted with the slain.



The birds of prey shall flock to the carnage (verses 17-20).  Cp. Rev. 19: 17, 18.



Nor will the tremendous destruction of the anti-christian hosts be confined to one spot.  It must be born in mind that not only are Jerusalem and its adjacent parts invested, but the alien armies over-run the whole land, and at three distinct places destruction overtakes them.



Joel (2: 20) speaks of an overthrow “between the East Sea and the uttermost sea,” that is between the Dead Sea and the Great Sea or Mediterranean.



Ezekiel tells us that the graves of Gog’s followers shall be “in the valley of the passengers on the East of the sea,” the sea here indicated being the sea of Gennesaret or Tiberias.  In the Hebrew all lakes are called seas.  This is called the Eastern Sea to distinguish it from the Mediterranean.  The valley near this lake is called “valley of the passengers,” because it was the great road by which the merchants and traders from Syria and other Eastern countries went into Egypt.  We can picture the onrushing invading host sweeping down this valley, crossing the Jordan at its fords, filling the whole country between the great sea on the West and the sea of Tiberias on the East, and meeting destruction in the Valley of Megiddo or Jezreel.  “Great shall be the day of Jezreel  Both these overthrows may be in great part by human instrumentality helped, as we believe God’s people will be helped, by the Almighty Himself.  But when we turn to the third scene of destruction we are brought face to face with the great Avenger of His people.  For the third place is the Valley of Hinnom, called, as we saw, by Joel the Valley of Judgment.  Here it is that the great leader of these desolating and devastating hordes, Gog, Antichrist himself, meets his doom at Tophet.  “That wicked one shall be destroyed by the LORD with the brightness of His manifestation  We shall see shortly how this is all described in great detail by the prophet Zechariah.  Before, however looking at what he tells us, let us note four things mentioned in the closing verses of this 39th. chapter.



1. The conversion of Israel.  “So the house of Israel shall know that I am the LORD their God from that day (i.e., the day of destruction of their enemies) and forward” (verse 22).



2. The reason why God’s people went into captivity.  “Because they transgressed against Me” (verse 23).



3. The fulfilment of the promise of restoration.  “Now will I bring again the captivity of Jacob, and have mercy upon the WHOLE HOUSE OF ISRAEL, and I will be jealous for My holy name” (verse 25, and in verse 28)  “I have gathered them unto their own land and have left none of them any more there” (i.e., in foreign lands).



4. The great outpouring of the [Holy] Spirit, mentioned more elaborately by Joel (2: 28).



“For I have poured out My Spirit upon the house of Israel, saith the Lord God” (verse 29).



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He prophesied some fifty-two years after Ezekiel, and after the return of the representatives of the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin from Babylon.  Therefore we are on particularly safe ground for looking for the future [and literal] fulfilment of his prophecy, especially chapters 12-14, for though another dispersion took place after the invasion of the Romans, it is absolutely certain that no such events have yet happened as those depicted in the chapters mentioned.  But before looking at them let us glance at two verses in chapter 6.



We have already had Messiah spoken of as “The Branch” in Isa. 4: 2, as “beautiful and glorious”; in Isa. 11: 1 as a descendant of the Royal House of David, “A Branch shall grow out of His roots”; in Jer. 23: 5, 6, as “a King that shall reign and prosper”; in 33: 15 as again as the royal house of David, “the Branch of righteousness to grow up unto David”; and finally in Zechariah as being brought forth by Jehovah, “Behold I will bring forth My Servant the Branch” (3: 8); and lastly, in 6: 12, 13, as the King-Priest “who shall sit and RULE UPON HIS THRONE; and HE shall be a Priest upon HIS THRONE  A King-priest! two great offices combined.  They never have been thus blended despite the vaunted claims of the Church of Rome that the so-called Vicar of Christ is a King-priest.  No mere man [i.e., “none other name” (Acts 4: 12, A.V.), other than Messiah-Jesus] can lay claim to this dual dignity.  It can only be vested in and will only be fulfilled in the glorified [and bodily manifested] Person of the Lord Jesus Christ [in the “age” yet to come].



And now to turn to chapters 12-14 for amplified details of what has already been spoken of by Ezekiel concerning the invasion of Israel’s land by alien forces.  The scene of battle is specially Judah and Jerusalem, for it was to the tribe of Judah with that of Benjamin to whom Zechariah more particularly prophesied.



“Behold I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling to all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and Jerusalem.  And in that day I will make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all peoples; all that burden themselves with it shall be cut to pieces, though all the peoples of the earth shall be gathered together against it” (12: 3, 4).



Surely these verses tell us plainly of a mighty investiture of the capital of Palestine; and in verse 14: 2 we read of partial and seeming success of the invading troops.  “For I will gather all nations (represented by those mentioned in Ezekiel 38 [together with any others who follow the Antichrist at this time]) against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city  Such is the awful state to which [modern-day] Jerusalem shall be reduced.  There seems to be no escape.  For the twenty-eighth time in the history of the world the once Holy City will be besieged.  And the twenty-eighth will be the most hopeless of all.  Humanly speaking, nothing can possibly avert the utter annihilation of the city.  Nothing human!  But what about the Divine?  At that very moment, when all seems to be lost, when what little hope there had been we have given way to despair, God intervenes, in the person of Messiah-Jesus.  “Man’s extremity is God’s opportunity  In the days of old, King Hezekiah had been saved by intermediate divine interposition, the threatening hordes of Assyria had been reduced by death during the hours of darkness and slumber.  But this is more wonderful, more miraculous.  It must be told in divinely inspired words: “Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations as when He fought in the day of battle” (14: 3).  And this is the person of His Blessed Son:-


“And His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives,*

which is before Jerusalem on the east” (verse 3).


[* See Cover Picture of the tract: “The Prize of the First Resurrection]



Oh, wonderful love of God!  Oh, the marvellous truth of the Inspired Word!  More than two thousand years before, it had been said to a few meek believers in the risen Lord near, if not at, that actual spot, “This same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven  But now He comes as a victorious Conqueror to sanctify and magnify His Name, to vanquish the foes of His own (though rebellious) brethren, to avenge the evil, to set up a rule of righteousness and peace [and, most miraculously of all, to RESURRECT THE HOLY DEAD.  That is, to raise those whom He has judged worthy to rise “out from dead ones” at that time (Heb. 9: 27. cf. Luke 20: 35; Phil. 3: 11-14); who are destined to rule with Him (Rev. 3: 21; Luke 22: 28-30) after the “First” and “Better Resurrection” (Rev. 20: 4: 3; Heb. 11: 35b.).]*


[* See note 2]



And what course of events follows that victorious appearing?  We have gathered in the course of these papers that the enemies of God’s people shall be entirely vanquished, that antichrist himself shall meet with a fearful doom, that a [millennial] reign of righteousness and justice shall take the place of the world’s violence and greed, that marvellous temporal blessing will ensue, that universal peace among the nations, and the animal creation shall prevail.  All those wonderful things, quite outside the thought of ken or man, shall come to pass.  They are all written in the Book, and therefore MUST be realized.



But surely exceeding all these - truly marvellous as they are - is the stupendous triumph of divine Grace.  To see that  this stiff-necked people, resisters of God’s mercy and patience and love for hundreds of years, shall finally, by looking upon Him whom they have pierced, be brought to such a degree of godly repentance that “they shall mourn for Him as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for His firstborn” (12: 10).  For the land shall mourn, every family apart shall mourn.  It shall be a very great mourning” (12: 11-14).



It is godly sorrow for it is given by God Himself.  “And I will pour upon the house of David and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem the spirit of grace and of supplication” (verse 10).



But even this is not the climax.  The whole city, the whole land [i.e. all the earth (Habakkuk 2: 14)] shall become separated to the Lord, and that not in the spirit of self righteousness as in the past, but in true holiness, which is of God, and not of man, “HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD” (14: 20).  Jerusalem shall have become the joy of the whole earth.  The secret of this is the [bodily] presence of the Lord in her midst.  And the name of the city from that day shall be Jehovah Shammah “The LORD is there















“The kingdom of Messiah is, as the scriptures everywhere declare, everlasting in its essence and existence.  It has ‘no end  Isa. 9: 7; Heb. 1: 8-12.  Messiah’s throne is ‘foreverPs. 89: 4, 29, 36; 45: 6; Heb. 1: 8.  Throughout its several forms or dispensations, it is an everlasting kingdom also, but yet to each of these forms there is an ‘end  Matt. 24: 14; Heb. 9: 26; 1 Cor. 15: 24.  It is olamic, aeonian in both, but in a different sense; in the first, absolutely so; in the second, relatively so; unlimited as to its essence, limited as to its forms.  As to its essence, no external event can limit it.  As to its form, external events do limit it.  Viewed in its essence it is eternal only.  Viewed in its essence and form, together, it is both temporal and eternal, yet called eternal in its relative sense, that is, ‘age-abiding  Essentially it is one, and endures forever in an absolute sense.  Circumstantially, or dispensationally, it is many, its forms evanescent, though each is age-abiding. …


“And yet, while limited in form, each dispensation is called ‘olamic or ‘forever  Heb. 1: 10-13.  The events of the end time for each, while limiting the form, do not limit the kingdom itself.  The kingdom still goes on.  It is everlasting still.  And such is the case with respect to ‘the thousand years,’ or millennial form of the Kingdom of Christ.  Beyond ‘the thousand years’ it still endures, even after it has been surrendered to the Father.  Through all eternity, the Son still rules His people even after He Himself has become ‘subjected to Him that did subject all things unto Him1 Cor. 15: 28.  That is the sounding note of the seventh trumpet.  Rev. 11: 15.  But the form of the kingdom, in the eternal state, will differ as greatly from its previous form in the millennial state, as that millennial form will differ from our present form, and as ours again differs from the old Mosaic, or as that did from the patriarchal tent.” (Quoted from: “The Thousand Years” by Nathaniel West, pp. 61.)




“But, if Messiah’s kingdom is ‘Eternal,’ it is also ‘Temporal  If it is unmeasured duration, not merely indefinite but absolute, transcending all temporal limits, it is no less a kingdom of measured duration, restricted to temporal limits, and bounded by great historic events.  One in essence, it is many in forms.  Its organic growth, from a seed to a tree, necessitates this.  And this was the Hebrew faith, no less than the previous view.  It is the biblical view also.  The word ‘Olam,’ ‘Ever,’ does not, of itself, and by fixed necessity, always denote the annihilation of time, but as frequently, in Hebrew usage, denotes simply unbroken continuance up to a special epoch in history, or to a certain natural termination.  It has a relative as well as an absolute sense, a finite as well as an infinite length.  It means ‘Here’ as well as ‘Beyond,’ and applies to a kingdom that comes to ‘an End,’ as well as to one that has ‘no End  For this reason, a great World-Period, or Age, is called an ‘Olam,’ and World-Period, or Ages, are called ‘Olammim,’ and in order to express infinite time, the reduplication is used, ‘Ages of Ages,’ ‘Olammim Olammim  It is therefore a false conclusion to say that because the term ‘Le Olam,” ‘Forever,’ is applied to the Messianic Kingdom, therefore the Hebrews contradicted themselves, when they assigned to it limits at the same time.  Messiah’s kingdom is Temporal and also Eternal, and in both senses, Olamic.  The bondsman’s free covenant to serve his master lasted ‘forever,’ but that only meant ‘till Jubilee  The Levitical economy was established to be ‘forever,’ but that only meant till ‘the time of reformation  The Christian Church is ‘forever,’ in its present form, but that only means ‘till He comes  True to this view, the Jewish Teachers ever held to a Temporal Kingdom of glory on [this] earth, in the ‘World to Come,’ this side the Eternal State in the final New Heaven and Earth. …” (Nathaniel West, pp. 352-353.)













Amongst the various Denominations within Christendom – (that is, amongst those who hold to the true Scriptural teachings relative to the Gospel of God’s Grace through faith in Christ Jesus, and the “free gift” of eternal life (Rom. 6: 23, R.V.) through faith alone in Him; and since the Gifts and Calling of God are without repentance their eternal inheritance in “A New Heaven and New Earth” (Rev. 21: 1) is guaranteed by His unconditional promise) - there is to be found today multitudes of Bible teachers who reject His unfulfilled prophetical teachings, found in both Testaments of His inspired word!  This is, as they suppose, is the correct method of interpretation for those prophecies.



But, most of this activity today, appears to me to be what might be called ‘a Christian cover-up’ and a justifiable excuse to neglect and consequences of what has been called “responsibility truths” of the inspired word, as not applicable to regenerate believers!  (See, “The Rod, Will God Spare It?” on this website.)



Following on from this, there are those who interpret the word “RESURRECTION” as an event which will takes place immediately after the time of a believer’s Death!  They maintain Christians can enter into God’s presence in Heaven at this time; and that it is only the unredeemed body (Rom. 8: 23) which is to be resurrected when Christ returns to resurrect the dead.  Hence the unscriptural expression constantly used today: “the resurrection of the body”!  This “resurrection of the body,” is precisely what a Presbyterian minister said: “the Presbyterian Church believe”!  But, what they, and many other Christian Denominations believe - (relative to what takes place at the time of Resurrection) - is not what our Lord Jesus or any of His chosen Apostles taught!


On previous occasion, (during a short conversation with the moderator of the Presbyterian Church in Belfast) and after reminding him of (God’s promise to Abraham of an inheritance on a particular portion of “Land” upon this earth, see Gen. 13: 15a, 15: 7, R.V.), I asked him to explain what Stephen - (the first Christian martyr, who is described in Scripture as and a man “full of faith and the Holy Spirit” Acts 6: 5, R.V.) - meant when he spoke to “elders” and “scribes” and said: “God removed him [Abraham] into this land, wherein ye now dwell: and He gave him none inheritance in it, no not as much as to set his foot on: and He promised that He would give it to him in possession…” (Acts 7: 4b-5a.)? 


No answer from the Moderator was forthcoming, and, (as expected because of his method of interpretation and teaching) there appeared no expression of shock or surprise on his face!  But, as soon as it was suggested to him that Abraham is not yet resurrected from the dead or placed back in the land to enjoy his promised inheritance; and that this is because he is presently in the underworld of “Hades” as a disembodied soul (Luke 16: 23, 31); and that he could not possibly inherit any “Land” upon this earth until after the time of his resurrection, when his unredeemed body (Rom. 8: 23) and soul will be reunited, he looked into my eyes and replied: “The Presbyterian church do not teach that”!



The following selected quotations - (in keeping with what we learn from studying the Scriptures) is again taken from the Presbyterian Nathaniel West’s writings in “The Thousand Years, Studies in Eschatology in Both Testaments”.  They indicate how far and for how long that Christian denomination and all others have wandered from truths found in the numerous unfulfilled prophecies and teachings my our Lord Jesus Christ and His Apostles and Prophets.



“Every faithful student of the Scriptures, unbiased by false theories of interpretation, will attest these words as true.  What we find in the New Testament as its outcome in respect to the ages and the kingdom, has already lain in the bosom of the Old Testament from the beginning.  The closing part of the New Testament is but the full flower of which the opening part of the Old Testament was the precious seed, the kingdom one and the same, in essence, all the way.  Nothing appears in the latter revelation that was not hid in the earlier, nothing in John that was not in Moses…” (pp. 2.)


In chapter 10 of the Author’s book, and under the heading “The 1000 Years in Ezekiel,” we find the following:-


“A preliminary word is needed as to Ezekiel Chapter xxxvii, before discussing chapter xl-xlviii, the favourite retreat of post-millennarians.  The vast body of exegetes agree that the sublime symbol of the reanimated Bones in the Valley of Vision, prefigures the literal re-establishment of Israel as a nation, and organised body politic, in their own land, at the Second Coming of Christ.  ‘The Symbol,’ says Professor Briggs, ‘is a symbol of the resurrection of Israel as a nation, and their restoration to the holy land.  It becomes associated in subsequent prophecy with the doctrine of a universal resurrection, because the restoration of Israel, that the prophet had in view, can be accomplished only in resurrection of all mankind in the last great day, and their establishment in the New Jerusalem upon the New Earth* ** It is perfectly correct that the civil, political, national and religious restoration of the ‘Whole house of Israel’ in their fatherland, is here predicted.  But it is contrary to the text and the whole word of God, to say that this is ‘associated with the doctrine of a universal resurrectioneither at the Second Coming of Christ, or at the Last Judgment, or that Israel’s political rehabilitation ‘can be accomplished only in the resurrection of all mankind in the last great day’; or that this political reestablishment takes place ‘in the New Jerusalem upon the New Earth;’ or that this view of the restoration (the view of Kliefoth followed by Professor Briggs) is ‘what the prophet had in view  The eternal continuity of the Jewish nation, existing politically as a separate entity, distinct from other nations in the final New Earth, with New Jerusalem as the Metropolis of the Eternal State, may be true, but it is not taught here, since Ezekiel clearly tells us that, ‘many days after’ Israel’s restoration, Gog’s expedition shall march against the ‘Beloved city’ and fire from heaven consume the invaders; - a military promenade and divine judgment being scarcely appropriate in eternity, and on the New Earth, after the ‘first earth’ has ‘passed away’ and ‘no place is found’ for either Satan, Gog, or their encircling swarms.  Ezek. xxxviii: 8-13.  And the apostle John, who was somewhat skilled in the prophets, confirms this criticism, showing that Gog’s march is against Israel restored, on the old earth, and before the old earth has vanished away. Rev. xx: 7-10.


[* Note. Bold type is used to highlight the Professor’s denial of a select resurrection of reward “out of dead ones” (Luke 20: 35, lit. Gk.), as well as the denial of a literal kingdom of “a thousand years” (Rev. 20: 4), established by Messiah upon this restored earth after His Second Coming! – Ed.]


** Briggs.  Messianic Prophecy.  227.


The view that this ‘locus classicus’ is not a ‘proof text.’ for the doctrine of a resurrection of the body, as Jerome and others taught, is incorrect.  While the symbol prefigures Israel’s political recovery in Palestine, it involves also a literal resurrection of Israel’s faithful dead from their individual graves. [Bold type and underlining here and throughout are mine. Ed.]  A large number of the ablest scholars insist upon this.  The epoch of occurrence is that of the literal resurrection of God’s saints.  Hos. xiii: 14; Isa. xxv: 8; xxvi: 19; Dan. xii: 2, 3; compare Matt. xiii: 43; I Cor. xv: 24; Rev. xx: 4-6.  The Hebrew term ‘Mikkiverotheichem,’ rendered ‘out from your gravesEzek. xxxvii: 12, has, for its root, ‘kever’ (cover) which never means death, nor the state of the dead, nor Hades or Sheol, but always an individual grave.*  Employed as a symbol of the nations, or the field of slaughter, where dead Israel nationally sleeps, it yet imports the place of literal sepulture [sepulchre], and its use, in connection with the [future] resurrection here predicted, involves the literal resurrection of Israel’s faithful dead, and harmonizes with Paul’s all-comprehending word when, referring to this very [yet future] event*, he says, ‘What shall the receiving of them be, but Life out from the deadRom. xi: 15; one of the frequent and strong antitheses in which he delights.  It is a great error to deprive God’s word of its whole significance.


* Kahle Bibl.  Eschatol. 136-140.  Craven, in Lange’s Commentary, Revelation, Excurs. 366. I.


[* See Phil. 3: 11 and compare with Luke 20: 35.]


The national resurrection of Israel is accomplished in connection with the literal resurrection of Israel’s faithful dead, at the time of the Second Coming of Christ.  Then He will appear in His glory and build up Zion, gather the outcasts, heal the broken in heart, and bind up the wounds of His people. Ps. cxlvii: 2-4; Isa. lxvi: 5; Ps. cii: 13-22.  They shall come from the East, and the West, and the North, and the South, and sit down with risen Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, not in the ‘New Earth,’ after the 1000 years have expired, but in Canaan made glorious on the old Earth.


Time was, in Jerome’s day, when the ‘Church’ having swerved from her first faith, spiritualized this ‘visio famossissima,’ as he justly calls it, and it became a constant ‘lectio,’ or ‘reading,’ in all the Churches.  Israel was the ‘ChurchConstantine was ‘Michael’ standing up for Israel, the temporal supremacy of Christianity in the Roman Empire was the ‘First Resurrection.’  Even then the 12 Apostles sat on their promised thrones, and ruled the Kingdom by their various Epistles.  With the cessation of the martyr-flame, and erection of the State-Church, and her nature by imperial patronage, the 1000 years, had dawned!  ‘Famous,’ indeed, was the vision of Ezekiel, a mirror in which the ‘Church’ of the 4th century dreamed she saw her own face.*  Israel was snuffed out, as an offensive wick, by Origen, Augustine, Jerome, and Eusebius, a smoking flax quenched by Gentile hands, a light extinguished, impossible to be relumed. …


[* This remark may well be a reference to 2 Cor. 4: 4-6.]


“Notwithstanding this, God’s truth, - as a Jew once said, ‘is mighty and will prevail,’ and, as another Jew said, ‘God’s word is not bound  Dead Israel shall rise again as truly as did dead Lazarus.  The ‘House of IsraelDan. ix: 7, 11; ‘All IsraelDan. ix: 7, 11; Rom. xi: 26; Israel as a ‘PeopleRom. xi: 1.  Israel as a ‘NationJer. xxxi: 36, shall yet reappear in history, more glorious than ever.  Their Dry Bones shall flourish like the grass of the field, even in the Holy City, and the dew-gemmed verdure of their resurrection will adorn the now sad Valley of Vision.  Isa. lxvi: 14; xxvi: 19; Ps. lxxii: 16; cx: 3; Hos. xiv: 14: 5. …” (pp. 417-421.)


“In the light of these facts we discover what damage to the word of God, and to the [future hopes of] the Church of God, the existence of one time-embalmed error of exposition will bring, and indeed, has already brought!  How, from century to century, exegetes and theologians, professors and pastors, transmit, as if by hereditary blindness, the thick eye scales of former generations, adding new laminae of their own, we utter so boldly, precisely just what is not the fact … The spiritualizing, or idealizing of [the unfulfilled events found in] Old Testament prophecy, and the whole false conception of the character of John’s Apocalypse have only made the evil almost incurable.  Saturated with [prophetical] error is Commentary.  From the days of Eusebius and Augustine, Jerome, Africanus and Syncellus, the Church has gone staggering like Elymas, groping for the door.  Greek, Latin, Lutheran, Reformed, all are in the mire.  The best men they have borne, have been blinded [by Satan to ‘the light of gospel of the glory of Christ’ (2 Cor. 4: 4, R.V.)], and thousands yet are.” (pp. 195, 196.)